Recurring kidney stones — help!

Originally Published: September 5, 1995 - Last Updated / Reviewed On: April 15, 2011
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Dear Alice,

I have had twelve kidney stones in the past five years. Every time I pass a stone the doctor tells me to follow a special diet. I follow the diet and still get kidney stones. Do you have any suggestions? Thank you.

Signed,
In pain

Dear In pain,

Kidney stones (aka renal lithiasis) can be very painful, as you well know. They develop when deposits of minerals and acid salts (calcium, oxalate, urate, cystine, xanthine, and phosphate) on the surfaces of the kidneys stick together and solidify, forming a stone that can be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball. While simple lifestyle changes and medicines may help prevent kidney stones from forming, it's a good idea to determine, with the help of a health care provider, why you repeatedly develop kidney stones.

Approximately one out of ten people develop kidney stones and typically experience the following symptoms:

  • Blood in urine (appears pink-ish in color)
  • Pain on both sides of lower back
  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Urine that smells bad
  • Stomach ache that doesn't go away
  • Nausea/vomiting

List adapted from Kidney Stones from the National Kidney Foundation

In addition, people who have had kidney stones in the past are 50 percent more likely to develop more kidney stones within ten years. Additional risk factors include:

  • Not drinking enough fluids, like water
  • Family history
  • Being male
  • Consuming a high-protein, high-sugar, high-sodium, low-fiber diet
  • Being immobile for an extended period of time, i.e., being bed-ridden
  • Taking some medications
  • Having chronic diseases such as high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, kidney cysts

List adapted from What You Should Know about Kidney Stones from Family Doctor.org

To help prevent kidney stones from forming, you may want to consider the following dietary suggestions:

  • Drink about 14 cups (yep) of fluids per day — at least half of which should be water
  • Drink lemonade made with real lemons, as the citrate in the lemons help prevent stones from forming
  • Reduce daily salt intake to less than 1,500 mg per day
  • Reduce intake of animal protein to no more than six to eight ounces
  • If you form calcium oxalate stones, reduce intake of foods that are high in oxalates (i.e., beets, rhubarb, collards, okra, sweet potato, spinach, almonds, star fruit, products containing soy, chocolate, tea, scallops, anchovies)

List adapted from What You Should Know about Kidney Stones from Family Doctor.org

Keep in mind that although most kidney stones are composed of calcium oxalate, cutting out calcium from your diet is usually not recommended, unless your intestine absorbs too much dietary calcium. A health care provider can help you determine whether this is the case.

If you have tried following your doctor's recommended diet and this still has not helped, there may be an underlying cause, such as a chemical imbalance, at work. You may want to consider discussing this issue with the same (or different) health care provider. If you are a student at Columbia, you can make an appointment to see a health care provider by calling Medical Services at x4-2284 or by logging in to Open Communicator. For additional information on kidney stones, you may want to check out the websites for the National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive, and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and/or the National Kidney Foundation.

Kidney stones may be painful, but remember that relief may be just a stone's throw away.

Alice