Nutrition & Physical Activity

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Does caffeine affect athletic performance?

Dear Reader,

Your coach and captains may not be correct. Several studies, under various conditions, suggest that consuming caffeine prior to physical activity has no additional effect on sweat rates, total body water loss, or negative effect on athletic performance as compared to non-caffeinated products — and it may provide a boost for you out on the soccer field!

Caffeine has been considered an ergogenic aid — a drug that increases performance as a result of the physiological effects it has on the body. While the exact mechanism isn't known for sure, some researchers believe that caffeine stimulates earlier and greater fat burning during exercise. This would help preserve the body's store of glycogen (the fuel muscles use) so that a person could exercise longer before feeling exhausted. This theory supports findings that caffeine improves performance in endurance events, such as long distance running and/or cycling. A review of literature on the effects of caffeine in short-term and high-intensity exercise concludes that the substance may also aid athletes’ performance in team sport activities that requires repetitive sprinting (like soccer) if ingested before the activity. Others believe that the stimulant effect of caffeine may help with alertness, mental clarity, and overall mood, all of which could help during a workout. For more information, check out Energy drinks and weight loss from the Go Ask Alice! archives.

However, caffeine can affect people in different ways. While some people might notice a performance boost, others might suffer from dizziness, headaches, loss of coordination, abdominal cramps, or nausea — definitely not desirable on game day. Caffeine can also interfere with sleep patterns; overuse might mean that you're not well-rested enough when it comes time to play.

Do you notice that you experience some of these issues when you add caffeine to your diet? If so, you might want to opt out and focus your efforts on proper training, rest, and nutrition for optimal performance. If you don’t, you can rest assured that caffeine does not seem to cause excessive dehydration (though make sure to drink plenty of water and other non-caffeinated drinks, too) and may actually be of benefit when you’re on the field!

Alice

How do I slim down bulky, muscular thighs?

Dear Anonymous,

Many women athletes, once they end competitive play, work on reducing the size of their muscles in different parts of their bodies. As both a softball and soccer player, you are most likely performing power movements in order to train your legs. These power movements probably involve lifting very heavy loads for a few repetitions while weight training and performing explosive movements, such as pressing off of your pivot leg when sprinting.

The amount of muscle in your thighs can be reduced, but it may hamper your athletic performance if you are still active in softball and soccer. As a power athlete, you probably have a larger proportion of fast-twitch muscle fibers (Type II) than slow-twitch fibers (Type I), found predominantly in endurance athletes. Most of your muscle type will not change, as the type of muscle fibers do not predominantly change over the course of one's life. Basically, you are born with the primary type of muscle fiber that you will always have; however, a small amount may adapt to changes in your workout regimen. Resistance and endurance training enlarges Type I fibers, while inactivity causes them to atrophy. Likewise, training may alter Type II fibers, which come in two varieties: hybrid fibers (Type IIa) and glycolitic fibers (Type IIb). Weight training converts Type IIb fibers into larger Type IIa fibers. With disuse, Type IIa fibers revert back to leaner Type IIb fibers.

If you are no longer playing or simply have a strong desire to decrease the muscle size in your quadriceps and hamstrings that make up your thighs, consider cutting back on lifting heavy weights while strength training. As opposed to performing one to four sets for three to five repetitions at a very heavy weight (85 to 100 percent of your one-lift maximum, which is the most you can lift for only one repetition, after which, you cannot repeat the exercise), begin doing three sets for 15 to 20 repetitions at a low weight (approximately 50 to 70 percent of your one-lift maximum). Below are some leg exercises to include in your training:

  • Squats
  • Leg press
  • Leg curls
  • Leg extensions
  • Seated and standing calf raises
  • Adductor
  • Abductor

Another option to lessen the size of your thigh muscles is to introduce distance running into your training regimen, as long as you do not have or are not prone to any joint pain in your legs. This activity can transform the size and structure of your legs. This is because distance runners adapt to this form of endurance training by developing leaner muscular legs (even though the muscle type will predominantly remain the same). You may consider starting with one mile and then build up to five to ten miles during a training session.

People may be genetically predisposed to have strong leg muscles in their thighs. This might not only apply to you, but also may be a reason for your athletic success. Although your legs may not look traditionally feminine, it's important to recognize their beauty in performing strong, powerful moves when scoring a goal or running to home. Since it sounds as if you're still active in softball and soccer, you might come to terms with your priority — to stay competitive in these sports, to play at a more leisurely level, or to stop for the time being. Your choice will determine whether, how much, and for how long you can transform the muscle mass in your thighs.

The bottom line will be deciding whether it's more important to you to have strong muscles that serve you athletically, or smaller muscles and less athletic prowess (or power). If you desire both, and you cannot change what is in your genes, then you may be able to change how you view your powerful, capable body.

Alice

Kickstart for getting healthy eating and exercise plan in gear?

Dear In dire need of a diet/workout routine,

While you may be low on motivation right now, don't fret; it's never too late to get back on track.

Instead of thinking about the negatives related to lack of exercise and poor diet (excess weight, feeling sluggish), thinking about the positive benefits of healthy exercise and eating patterns may help your motivation return. Exercise and a healthy eating plan can help promote long-term health, but they also have more immediate effects. Exercise helps relieve stress and causes the brain to release mood-improving compounds called endorphins. Time spent on exercise is time spent on you, time for you to consider the issues of the day or to simply clear your head. Working out improves sleep quality, so we have more energy to take on work, school, and the next workout. In the past, what positives have you experienced from exercising and eating well?

Having established some pros, you may want to consider the barriers that are keeping you from eating healthily and doing regular physical activity. One example might be that you don't see healthy lunch options at your workplace or school. Another could be that some fitness center memberships are too pricey. What are all the barriers you can think of? (Hint: start writing them down!) Once you know what you're up against, you can brainstorm solutions and take a step-by-step approach to implement your solutions. For example, with the lunch time conundrum, would it work to pack a healthy lunch two or three times per week? Or could you start to scour the menu and deli shelves for healthy options that may be hidden away? Some folks find that rewards are part of the solution. What are some non-calorie rewards that would give you the incentive you need to stay active and eat well?

Feeling sluggish can be related to giving your body more fat, sugar, and calories than it needs. An energy boosting, balanced diet includes plenty of fruit, veggies, low-fat dairy, lean proteins, and whole grains. Look at the Related Q&As listed below, or visit the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics or Choosemyplate.gov web sites for tips and guidelines that will help you to put together a healthy and tasty eating plan. As you change your eating patterns, you may even chart your moods in a daily organizer, to see the foods that are making a difference.

Another great way to get back on track with exercise and healthy eating is to gain the support of an ally. Working out with a buddy will make it easier and more enjoyable, and will keep you accountable for those days when you want to skip your exercise. By varying the time of your workout and/or the activity you do, you can prevent getting bored with your same old routine. Sharing a home-cooked meal with a friend can be fun and healthy.

If you prefer, you could also get a professional perspective. Columbia students can schedule time with a trainer at Dodge Fitness Center. For healthy meal planning, Columbia students can set up an appointment with a registered dietitian by contacting Medical Services (Morningside) or the Student Health Service (CUMC). You can also participate in Columbia's physical activity initiative by joining CU Move. CU Move encourages members of the Columbia community to engage in active lives that include regular physical activity. The program provides participants with motivation, incentives to be active throughout the year, and event calendars with access to plenty of free and low-cost physical activity options on campus and around NYC. If you are not part of the Columbia community, you likely have personal trainers at your university fitness center, local gym, or YM/YWCA.

Be realistic, have fun, take small steps toward your goals, and you'll be on your way to getting big rewards!

Alice

Does warm milk really lull us to dreamland?

Dear Reader,

A cup of warm milk is no magic sleep potion, yet it is probably the most common food associated with bedtime. Milk contains two substances that are known to be related to sleep and relaxation, the hormone melatonin and the amino acid tryptophan. The amount of melatonin in a glass of milk is minute, much less than what would be taken in a supplement. The amount of tryptophan in milk is also small. In addition, our digestive process is complex. Considering these factors, it is unlikely that a glass of warm — or cold — milk would shorten the length of time that it takes to fall asleep.

Though milk components and serving temperature are not likely to influence the onset of sleep through physiological means, warm milk might have psychological significance. The routine of consuming a glass of warm milk may elicit memories of mom, home, and comforts of childhood that help us to relax. This is part of the natural transition from wakefulness to sleep. Recommendations include practicing stress reduction techniques, sticking to a regular sleep schedule, creating a relaxing bedroom environment, and avoiding caffeine or heavy meals close to bedtime.

For some individuals, particularly those with lactose intolerance or milk allergies, a glass of milk can be followed by uncomfortable digestive consequences. Lactose reduced, soy, almond, and rice milk are options that are more likely to be tolerated. If you have no allergy or intolerance, and warm milk simply grosses you out, you could try flavoring it with a bit of honey, vanilla, or cinnamon, but there is no reason that you need to continue attempting to use it as a sleep aid. Keep drinking your cold milk, to meet your daily calcium needs, and try other sleep improvement techniques.

Alice
P.S.: As a side note, putting your finger into a liquid that has just boiled, whether it is water, tea, or milk, is not advisable. Boiling milk reaches a temperature of approximately 100ºC. Ouch!

February 27, 2012

507786
I have used warm milk for almost fifty years as a sleep aid and it works wonderful. i believe in it fully... better than taking pills.
I have used warm milk for almost fifty years as a sleep aid and it works wonderful. i believe in it fully... better than taking pills.

November 12, 2008

21491

Hi Alice,

I am a lover of milk and love it cold or warm. I have always had success w/ warm milk lulling me to sleep. I have even had occasions when I've had a decaf coffee drink w/ steamed...

Hi Alice,

I am a lover of milk and love it cold or warm. I have always had success w/ warm milk lulling me to sleep. I have even had occasions when I've had a decaf coffee drink w/ steamed milk and it did me in for the rest of the work day. It really has worked for me in all the years that I have been doing it. As a matter of fact, it's a cool night where I am tonight and I'm going to have a nice warm mug of milk and maybe add a little honey and vanilla, curl up in my bed, and read until I'm done partaking... yum, what a treat! Sweet dreams, ya'll...

January 10, 2007

21178
Dear Alice,

I have been having trouble falling asleep and do not wish to use pills. I have found that 1 measuring cup of warm milk does put me to sleep. There is very little time between the...

Dear Alice,

I have been having trouble falling asleep and do not wish to use pills. I have found that 1 measuring cup of warm milk does put me to sleep. There is very little time between the actual drinking of the warm milk and my being asleep. This is not usual for me to fall asleep so fast, so it must be the warm milk.

— Jerry

March 3, 2006

21030

Alice,

Just wanted to add that in most microwaves a minute is all you need to get it hot. 3 minutes is like cooking!!

Alice,

Just wanted to add that in most microwaves a minute is all you need to get it hot. 3 minutes is like cooking!!

Lactobacillus acidophilus for diarrhea?

Dear Reader,

Lactobacillus acidophilus is bacteria, not the pathogenic type that causes illness, but actually one of several kinds of beneficial bacteria called probiotics. These helpful bacteria are normally found in the intestine and the vagina. They are also naturally available in cultured or fermented dairy products, such as yogurt that contain live active cultures and acidophilus milk. Probiotics are also sold as nutritional supplements. Since the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate dietary supplements, the presence and/or amount of live active cultures in supplements is not guaranteed.

Probiotics appear to offer various health benefits. They create a more acidic environment in the intestine and vagina, which helps keep harmful bacterial growth in check. This natural balance can be disrupted, however, by antibiotic use and illness. In these cases, the bad bacteria proliferate, usually causing conditions such as diarrhea or vaginal infections. Taking probiotics may help reduce the symptoms of diarrhea and treat vaginal infections.

Other possible benefits include enhancement of the immune system, helping the digestion process, production of antimicrobial substances, and protection against certain chronic illnesses, such as cancer, among other possibilities. However, more research is needed to definitively demonstrate that probiotics have these favorable actions.

To answer your question: There has been some research to suggest that L. acidophilus (commonly combined with another probiotic) may reduce the risk and/or duration of of some cases of diarrhea if used as a preventative measure. More specifically, a few studies have shown that the use of this probiotic has reduced the risk and incidence of diarrhea associated with antibiotic use and chemotherapy. In another study, a combination of probiotics that included L. acidophilus resulted in a shorter duration of acute diarrhea in children. While these findings are promising, there is currently no consensus on whether L. acidophilus alone or in combination with other probiotics would be effective for the prevention or treatment of traveler’s diarrhea.

Despite this research, if you are considering using L. acidophilus or other probiotics, consult your health care provider before doing so. Those who are pregnant or immune-compromised will need to determine whether or not it's medically safe to take probiotics. Adverse effects include gas and/or bloating, irritation, sensitivities or allergies, and interactions with over-the-counter or prescription drugs and/or other dietary supplements.

There are other remedies for diarrhea, including antidiarrheal and antimicrobial medicines, but these are not recommended in all cases. When the cause is food poisoning, it’s best to let the illness run its course. Antidiarrheals can delay the time it takes for food-borne microorganisms to leave the body.

Hope this helps!

Alice

I'm worried about my friend who may have bulimia

Dear Reader,

Your friend is lucky to have a friend like you, who observed a change that concerned you enough to ask for help and learn more about what could be going on. A twenty-five pound weight loss in one month is definitely cause for concern. Losing that much weight in such a short period of time could indicate a medical problem. Has your friend seen a health care provider recently? If not, you may consider urging her to schedule an appointment with a medical provider for a physical exam to make sure she is okay. This may or may not be an easy thing for you to do. Strategies to consider when encouraging a friend to see a health care provider include:

Validating your friendship
Convey that you care for her and that your concern is genuine. You can say, "I value our friendship, and I hope you know that I care about you."
 
Thinking about your approach
Plan what you will say. Be direct with your concern, and focus on your friend's health rather than on her weight. Sometimes it's easier to identify an aspect of someone's health or behavior. For example, "I've noticed that you seem tired all the time"; or, "I've noticed that you seem kind of blue lately." If she's an athlete, you might be able to comment on her decreased performance. Whatever you choose to say, keep the emphasis away from weight, appearance, and food, because sometimes the most seemingly innocent statement can be misinterpreted and unwittingly close a door you had planned to open.
 
Offering a plan with options
Sometimes it's not enough to express concern. Follow up your observation with action-oriented ideas. For instance, "Is there a health care provider you feel comfortable scheduling an appointment with? If not, I'd be happy to help you find one." Or, "I can go with you to your appointment with the health care provider, if you like, or perhaps there is someone closer to you whom you might like to go with instead."
 
Recognizing your own limitations
Perhaps going to a health care provider with your friend is outside of your comfort zone. That's okay. It's important to know what you feel comfortable with so you avoid overextending yourself. Maintain whatever boundaries you need to so as not to get stressed out. Choosing to stay within your limits doesn't mean you're not supporting your friend.

It is not clear whether or not your friend has bulimia; however, you have noticed that she is in a serious situation and needs to be seen medically, since her health may be at risk. If you think your friend has an eating disorder, consider the following:

  • Individuals with bulimia nervosa tend to be of normal to slightly overweight range. Bulimia typically involves regular and repeated, often secretive binge eating bouts followed by purging, or other compensatory behaviors, to prevent weight gain. In general, purging is accomplished by self-induced vomiting and/or misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas (purging type). People with bulimia may resort to other extreme behaviors, such as excessive physical activity or self-induced starvation (non-purging type) to avoid weight gain. Bulimia is highly correlated with substance abuse. People with bulimia often have a history of misusing alcohol and/or other substances.
     
  • Anorexia nervosa is characterized by an unwillingness and inability to maintain a healthy body weight. Typically, someone with anorexia is at 85 percent or less of her/his healthy body weight. S/he has a severe fear of fat and weight gain, and has a distorted body image. The seriousness of the significant weight loss is often denied by someone with anorexia.
     
  • Binge eating disorder is similar to bulimia nervosa in that it is typically characterized by regular and repeated binge eating episodes. An episode of binge eating involves rapidly and uncontrollably eating a large amount of food in a single time period at one sitting until uncomfortably full. Unlike bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder does not include purging or other compensatory behaviors. Affected individuals are usually obese and have had problems with fluctuations in their body weight. For a majority of these individuals, binge eating begins during a diet.
     
  • Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) describes individuals who show signs of anorexia and/or bulimia, but do not fully exhibit the behaviors necessary to be clinically diagnosed with anorexia or bulimia. Someone with EDNOS may purge but not binge eat, or binge eat less than twice per week. So someone with disordered eating may not fit into the category of anorexia or bulimia, but still have an eating disorder that requires treatment.

A medical problem can trigger such significant weight loss in a short period of time, and so can depriving and/or ridding one's body of calories. Body weight remains stable when people eat just enough food to give their bodies the energy (calories) that they need for daily activity — calories taken in or ingested need to equal calories out or expended for weight maintenance. People gain weight if they consume more calories than their bodies need and use. If people eat fewer calories than they need and use, their bodies will take the energy from their storage, body fat, and will lose weight. Significant weight loss indicates that there may be multiple factors involved.

Based on your observations, the sooner you take action, the better. If you're comfortable, consider your approach if/when you talk with your friend. Timing is important, so choose when you two can sit in a relaxed environment that allows enough time to talk. Think about what you will say without coming across in a threatening or accusatory manner. Use "I" statements to express your feelings about what you've noticed that seems to be happening with her: "I'm worried that something is going on with your health." Try not to let the discussion turn into an argument or power struggle. If the conversation becomes hostile, back off and resume after you both have had time to calm down and think. Be prepared for rejection the first, fifth, or tenth time you express your concern with her. Persistence could pay off at some point, as the road to recovery is a process. If your friend denies she has a problem, a common reaction, don't take it personally; at least your friend now knows that she can come to you if/when she's ready to ask for or to get help.

If you're a college student, you can get help and support for your friend and even for you in dealing with your friend, from your resident adviser (RA) or residence hall director (RD), dean, advisor, or from someone in the Counseling Department. If you are at Columbia, you can reach out to the Health Services' Eating Disorders Team, Counseling and Psychological Services (CPS) at x4-2878, or a nutritionist or medical provider at Medical Services at x4-2284. As you can see, there are many opportunities to begin to get the help you need to be able to help your friend. It is important to remember that she needs medical care, and that you alone cannot fix her. She's lucky to have someone like you who cares enough to reach out.

In an emergency situation, however, you need to involve your friend's RA, RD, and/or dean to make sure she gets appropriate help immediately. Signs that indicate an urgent situation include sleeping all day, blacking out, suicidal thoughts or attempts, or significant weight loss, such as in this case. You may feel reluctant to blow the whistle on your friend, but you will be a better friend by helping her get the assistance she needs than by respecting her privacy in this specific situation.

Alice

I need an effective, short-term weight loss and toning plan

Dear Annie,

Bravo for incorporating physical activity into your schedule! Regular exercise increases energy levels, improves quality of sleep, and boosts self-esteem. In terms of the effectiveness of your routine, it's difficult to say. Losing weight and toning up is influenced by multiple factors, including height, weight, bone density, genetics, and previous exercise regimen. By "a few pounds," do you mean two or ten or more? When setting out to change your body, it's important to ask yourself if the change you are striving for is realistic. In terms of your desired outcome, first ask yourself, "is this a realistic goal for me?" If you are unsure, it is wise to consult a personal trainer, exercise physiologist, registered dietitian, or your health care provider.

Part of effectively setting and reaching a goal means establishing one, or several, measurement criteria. Are you using a scale to measure body weight? Are you measuring body/fat composition? Strength? Clothes size? Body image? It's important to keep consistent with your indicators to know if you are making progress. If you are using a scale to measure body weight (in pounds), keep a few things in mind:

  • Muscle weighs more than fat.
  • Women especially can be prone to minor weight fluctuations due to menstruation and other types of hormonal activity.
  • Water, an essential nutrient for all sorts of body functions, can tip the scale one way or another.

You can also incorporate some basic guidelines into your plan that will help you maintain an active lifestyle:

  • Start slowly and build over time. It is smart to start off with a goal of running one mile as a workout, with the intention of increasing distance over time. Many people drop out of their exercise program because they go too hard, too fast, too soon. Pacing yourself, especially at the beginning, will help you establish confidence, self-awareness, and a strong fitness base.
  • Incorporate variety into your exercise and eating routine. Including different types of food and activity into your schedule will help to maintain enjoyment and motivation. You mention running and abdominal exercises — are there other types of activities you enjoy? Decreasing body fat and increasing toning or strengthening of muscle requires a balance of cardiovascular and strength training activities. Also, a wide variety of foods will help to ensure that your body is getting the nutrients it needs. Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables and think about decorating your plate as though it were a box of Crayola crayons; that is, aim for foods that are rich in color, such as blueberries, spinach, salmon, and tomatoes.
  • Find a friend. Studies have shown social support plays an important role in exercise motivation and sticking to an activity plan. Recruit friends and/or family to join you on a run, accompany you to lunch, or offer support.
  • Get plenty of rest. Sleep deprivation often makes everything more challenging, and it is especially easy to skip exercise when you feel tired. Sleeping well may help you avoid that trap. Plus, the more you exercise, the more rest your muscles will need to repair and recover.
  • Make it fun. Listening to music, running in the sunshine, or playing a rousing game with friends are all examples of ways to maximize fun and make physical activity something you look forward to and enjoy.

Maintaining a healthy and nutritious diet is an integral part of living a healthy lifestyle and achieving your weight loss goals. Here are a few great tips that may help you achieve your nutrition goals:

  • Keep a food diary.
  • Choose a diet low in fat, saturated fat and cholesterol and moderate in sugars.
  • Eat smaller meals more often — this can help ward off hunger so that you won't overeat at your next meal. Healthy snack options include low fat yogurt, fruit, nuts, vegetables, and whole-grain crackers.
  • Prepare smaller portion sizes.
  • Eat your favorite foods in moderation to help stifle cravings and help you to stick to your diet.
  • Avoid unhealthy fad diets.
  • Eat slowly — this can help you feel more full and avoid overeating.

Above all, the most important thing to remember is that every individual is different. If you feel good about what you are doing and are making progress, keep going until you reach your realistic, healthy goal. You can do it!

Alice

Cooking veggies and vitamin loss?

Dear Reader,

Vegetables can be a wonderful source of vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients that people need to stay healthy. The problem is that preparation can put a damper on the benefits that vegetables provide. In fact, according to the American Dietetic Association (ADA), improper preparation can cut the nutrient content of certain fruits and vegetables in half.

When cooking vegetables in water, some of the nutrient content, especially water-soluble vitamins including vitamins B and C, may leach into the surrounding water. But, as you suggest, using that water (or broth) in a soup or a gravy can, in fact, be a way of saving those nutrients and putting them to good use.

Still, high temperatures and long cooking times can degrade vitamins that are more sensitive to heat. While this is hard to avoid with soups, it is much less of a concern than leached and wasted vitamins. 

If you're planning on preparing vegetables to eat alone, you may want to try steaming them briefly until they are crisp and tender.  It's almost always best to keep cooking times low: microwaving, steaming, blanching, and stir-frying take the cake when it comes to speed.  Also, you may want to eat your veggies raw; salads and crudité are a great way to enjoy fresh vegetables and their full range of nutrients. Generally, the less cooked the better — overcooked vegetables don't only lose nutritional content, they also lose much of their flavor and color. This doesn't mean you should stop adding vegetables to your soup. The ADA recommends that you consume at least 3 to 5 servings of vegetables every day, so it may be a good idea to vary your preparation on a daily basis. Bon apetite!

Alice

What's a healthy weight?

Dear Confused,

It is courageous of you to write in about your situation, an important first step in getting to a healthy weight (and body image, for that matter). For most women, a healthy weight is one that allows regular menstruation and is sustainable when following a healthy, balanced eating plan. If the only way to attain a certain weight is by severely restricting your eating, that weight is not the healthiest, most natural weight for your body.

As far as a healthy weight for you is concerned, pinpointing a number, or even a range, without having a thorough medical assessment would be difficult, because different people can be healthy even if they have vastly different body weights. Unfortunately, media images and celebrities often aren't great role models when it comes to having a healthy weight. Some celebrities may be thinner than you, as you note, however they may achieve their weight through unhealthy means, such as over exercising, using drugs or diet supplements, or severely restricting their diets. In reality, they may owe their good looks more to teams of stylists and make-up artists than to good health.

It sounds as though you still have concerns about your health, even though the purging has stopped. You're right to realize that not getting your period is a huge red flag indicating something is not right with your body. Amenorrhea (loss of your period) can happen if your weight is very low, especially if your body fat is too low, or if your diet is too low in fat. Other factors, such as excessive exercise, may also play a role in amenorrhea. Your reluctance to see a health care provider is natural and understandable, many people who have disordered eating feel the same way, however amenorrhea is a condition that needs medical attention. If you are a student at Columbia, you can meet with a member of the Eating Disorders Team (Morningside) or with any provider at Medical Services (Morningside) or the Student Health Service (CUMC).

As for your diet, based on the plan you describe, your body is probably lacking many nutrients, including calcium, vitamins D, K, B-6, and B-12. In addition, you may be getting too little zinc, magnesium, iron, essential fatty acids, and protein. Some vitamin and mineral deficiencies take time to develop, but you are starting to see the effects of inadequate nutrition by not getting your period. Many people make the mistake of severely limit their dietary fat; however, our bodies must have some fat to absorb vitamins A, D, E and K, assimilate calcium into our bones, and manufacture sex hormones such as estrogen. Women need estrogen to keep their bones strong and get their period. The amenorrhea is a clue that your body isn't making sufficient estrogen, which, if continued, can put you at risk for developing osteoporosis — even as a young person.

When you're thinking about improving your diet, remember that your body needs healthy forms of carbohydrates, fats, and protein to function well and stay healthy. Balancing these "macronutrients" may sound like a daunting process, but if you break it down to small, manageable goals, even small bites, you could have a better chance for success. You can check out ChooseMyPlate.gov to find more information about balanced eating. Here are some tips to get started:

  • Try adding one new food at a time to your daily regimen.
  • You might start with a good source of protein: tofu, fish, poultry, meat, or eggs.
  • Next, you can add milk (soy or dairy) or yogurt to your cereal. It will help to satisfy your hunger, and provide much needed calcium in your eating plan.
  • Add in some vegetables, one at a time.
  • Finally, try switching to some whole grains; for example, whole wheat bread or brown rice (instead of the white varieties of each).
  • If you feel more comfortable snacking or having several small meals during the day instead of having full meals, that's fine, as long as you have well-balanced food choices.

Although you don't want to tell anyone about your situation, it might just help you feel better about your situation. Perhaps there is a parent, religious leader, guidance counselor, teacher, doctor, nurse, friend, or relative with whom you could speak to help put your body image in perspective. Maybe starting the conversation seems like the most difficult part. If you are nervous about how to start, you can simply write down your symptoms and show someone, like you have here. You may find that talking to someone is less difficult than you expect, and also worthwhile.

Alice

Allergic to peanuts = allergic to pecans?

Dear Reader,

Being allergic to peanuts doesn't necessarily mean being allergic to tree nuts (and vice- versa). Being allergic to peanuts also doesn't automatically mean being allergic to other members of the legume family, such as lentils and soybeans. Similarly, being allergic to one kind of tree nut doesn't automatically result in being allergic to other tree nuts. However, most health experts recommend that people with peanut and/or tree nut allergies avoid all peanuts and tree nuts, just in case. A little introduction to peanuts and tree nuts might clarify this.

Peanuts are not actually nuts, but legumes, which are beans and peas. Peanuts, peanut products, and peanut by-products are found in many foods and in many variations, such as peanut flour, peanut oil, and peanut butter. The presence of peanuts in foods is tricky to identify; they can even be a hidden, unlabelled ingredient, such as hydrolyzed plant or vegetable protein. Also, cross contamination during manufacture of food products is another source of exposure to peanuts that can elicit allergic reactions, so some non-nut items are labeled as "may contain nuts."

Unlike peanuts, pecans are part of the tree nut family, which also includes almonds, walnuts, cashews, hazelnuts, pistachios, macadamia, chestnuts, and brazil nuts. Tree nuts are also present in a variety of foods and even in some bath and beauty products.

Allergy to peanuts and tree nuts, usually life-long, are two of the most common food allergies. Fortunately, many people with these allergies experience mild responses to the proteins found in peanuts and tree nuts, such as sneezing and/or itching. However, what is worrisome about these allergies is that some people experience severe enough reactions from miniscule amounts that can be life-threatening (e.g., difficulty breathing, loss of consciousness). In fact, about 100 people in the United States die each year from their peanut allergy. The most intense responses tend to be from ingesting food containing peanuts, tree nuts, or their derivatives, but inhaling air contaminated with peanut or tree nut dust, having skin or eye contact with something containing these items, and even kissing someone who recently consumed peanuts or tree nuts also can produce allergic responses. In particular, the sensitivity of peanut allergies and the prevalence of peanuts in our food supply and elsewhere have made peanuts a source of heated controversy for schools, camps, airlines, and restaurants concerning whether or not to ban them in these places.

What is in your control to prevent peanut and tree nut allergies is avoiding all peanuts and tree nuts (though accidental exposure could still happen no matter how vigilantly you avoid nuts). Educating oneself about the allergy (i.e., always asking about ingredients and reading food labels carefully) and preparing oneself for accidental exposure (i.e., always keeping epinephrine nearby) are other keys to managing a peanut or tree nut allergy. If you are uncertain about whether or not you can eat pecans safely, your health care provider may be able to refer you to an allergist. S/he can administer a skin prick, blood, and/or medically supervised food challenge test.

For more information about peanut, tree nut, and other food allergies, check out the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network web site.

Alice

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