Nutrition & Physical Activity
Dear Not Fully Aware,
Your question is one many people deal with. Some people were taught from an early age to finish everything on their plate, no matter how they felt. This was often rationalized by well-intentioned parents referencing the millions of starving children around the world. Unfortunately, this type of encouragement does little to teach children about listening to their bodies or learning to identify or conceptualize the feelings that come when one is satisfied with the amount or type of food they are eating. This conditioning experienced by many growing up, can carry on into adulthood.
Others are out of touch with their body signals for other reasons. How often have you felt ravenously hungry and then couldn't believe how much you'd eaten? How much food does it seem to take to satisfy your hunger? Letting yourself get really, really hungry distorts awareness of body signals. If you're out of touch or ignore subtle hunger cues, it's extremely difficult to detect subtle fullness. As a result, you're only able to feel extremes. It's difficult to describe what comfortable fullness feels like inside your body, but some people express it as being satisfied and content after eating. Others say it's a subtle feeling of fullness, of not being hungry anymore (even if there's still food on their plate).
You can begin by thinking about how you are feeling while you are eating — a kind of checking in with yourself. This takes a conscious effort. Once you've eaten some of your food, consider asking yourself some of these questions: does the food (still) taste good? Is my hunger beginning to subside? After a few more bites, am I beginning to feel satisfied? Try stopping about halfway through to determine if you've had enough. Try rating your fullness from 1 - 10:
- Ready to collapse from hunger
- I could eat something, but not very hungry
- Not hungry at all
- Comfortably satisfied
- Full to very full
- Disgustingly sick
If you go from a 2 to a 9 easily, perhaps you are going for too long without food, or your last meal was too small (a problem for dieters). Maybe your last meal was lacking important satiety nutrients, such as protein, fat or fiber, which usually help to keep you satisfied over a few hours. Sometimes when we eat very quickly, a large quantity of food is consumed and before we realize it, we're stuffed. If this is your problem, try slowing down, taking your time chewing, swallowing, and resting between bites.
The most important part about eating to a pleasant fullness is to eat consciously — to increase your awareness. This takes practice for many people. Too often, we distract ourselves with other activities — such as studying, watching TV, or surfing the Internet, without realizing that we're full, until the entire bowl of popcorn, liter of soda, or pizza is gone. Give yourself time to enjoy and appreciate your food, and you can notice and identify its effects on your body.
For more information and insight, check out Evelyn Tribole and Elyse Resch's book, Intuitive Eating. If you are a Columbia student, you may want to make an appointment to speak with a nutritionist. Morningside campus students can contact Medical Services; CUMC students can reach out to the Student Health Service.
Best of luck!
The job, school, family, dog, and/or bills — the responsibilities of life seem to multiply with each year that we age. As a result, responsibilities to ourselves — health maintenance activities, such as exercise and balanced eating — get pushed off the schedule. From what you've said, it sounds as though unhealthy changes in lifestyle are taking a toll on your self-esteem, body image, and energy level. Your mind and body are calling out for a change in the program! So the question is, how can healthy eating and exercise be incorporated into your day without interfering with your busy schedule?
Fortunately, adopting a healthier eating style — one that emphasizes veggies, fruit, low-fat dairy, lean proteins, and whole grains — does not require hours of preparation in the kitchen. A fast fix for your eating plan can be found in the freezer section of your local grocery store. You can pick up a variety of healthy foods and meals that require little to no preparation. Microwave meals of today are much tastier and healthier than the stereotypical T.V. dinners of the past, and they offer the added benefit of portion control. Paying more attention to what is on your plate and ultimately cutting back on portion sizes is one specific doable step that may help you to get back to your runner's physique.
Take a quick look at food labels to single out healthier choices. Choose convenience meals that contain approximately one fourth to one third of your daily caloric needs and 30 percent of calories from fat, with less than 10 percent of calories from saturated fat. Look for meals that contain less than 800 mg of sodium and at least 4 grams of fiber. Add frozen or pre-cut/washed veggies to these meals and a piece of fruit for dessert. The high fiber content of fruits and vegetables will leave you feeling fuller after you have eaten, without adding many calories.
Errands, such as trips to the grocery, are multitasking opportunities for exercise. You can jog or even ride your bike to work, the grocery, and/or the cleaners, and avoid wasting time in traffic or finding a parking spot. Physical activity will not only help you to get closer to your ideal body shape, but has the potential to relieve stress, increase work productivity, boost after work energy level, and improve sleep quality. The following tips may be useful:
- Set the alarm 10 minutes earlier and wake up with stretching.
- Climb at least some of the stairs instead of waiting for the elevator.
- Take a walk around the office whenever you leave your desk for a bathroom or beverage break.
- Take a walk to a co-worker's desk instead of calling or sending an e-mail.
- Multitask by reading or doing research while walking on a treadmill or riding a stationary bike.
- Use a little extra effort and motion in the chores you do around the house in order to use more calories.
- Get off the train or bus one stop early or park your car a little further away from home/stores, to get in some walking.
- Work activity into your social life by meeting friends to go dancing or playing Frisbee in the park.
In addition to the tips listed above, a great source for nutrition and physical activity information is the USDA's MyPlate initiative. This site allows users to tailor much of their information to meet individual nutrition and activity needs. Columbia-affilaited students, faculty, staff, and alumni can participate in the University's physical activity initiative, CU Move. CU Move encourages members of the Columbia community to engage in active lives that include regular physical activity. The program provides participants with motivation, incentives to be active throughout the year, and event calendars with access to plenty of free and low-cost physical activity options on campus and around NYC
After you start making even small changes in your eating plan and include informal exercise in your day, you are likely to begin feeling better. At this point, you may get the urge to do more. In addition, cut back on sedentary activities so that additional time and attention can be given to optimizing your health. With a slow and steady approach you should be able to find the minutes you desire for being more active. Go for it!
The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) defines exercise intensity by percentage of maximum heart rate, rate of perceived exertion, and METS (metabolic equivalents) in their Position Stand, Recommended Quantity and Quality of Exercise for Development and Maintenance of Cardiorespiratory and Muscular Fitness and Flexibility in Healthy Adults. Moderate activity has been defined as 55 - 69 percent of maximum heart rate (MHR). ACSM defines "hard" exercise at 70 - 89 percent MHR, and "very hard" at 90 percent and above, with 100 percent being maximal exertion. Check out Minimum and maximum heart rate for aerobic exercise in the Go Ask Alice! archive to learn the calculations and more.
You can also use the "Rate of Perceived Exertion" (RPE), a subjective rating that a person can use to rate his or her exercise intensity. If someone doesn't have any other way to rate workout intensity (i.e., has no watch to use to count heartbeats, or doesn't know how fast s/he is walking or running), RPE is a low-tech method of determining this calculation. For example, a person can consider walking at a leisurely pace a 6, and perhaps a mad dash to catch a bus or a flyaway $100 bill a 19; so, rating activity in-between is a way to rate one's exercise intensity. The ACSM Position Stand uses the original scale from 6 - 19 to identify the perceived level of difficulty of physical activity, as follows:
6 - 8: Very, very light 9 - 10: Very light 11 - 12: Fairly light 13 - 14: Somewhat hard 15 - 16: Hard 17 - 18: Very hard 19: Very, very hard
Moderate intensity, using this scale of a person's self- perception of his or her own exercise difficulty, is 12 - 13, hard exercise is 14 - 16, and very hard activity is at 17-19.
The last measure — METS — has nothing to do with baseball players from New York; instead, it refers to metabolic equivalents. One MET is equivalent to your resting metabolic rate; 2 METS is any activity that requires two times your metabolic rate, etc. This measure is determined by the amount of oxygen consumed, which indicates the level of intensity a person is working. At 1 MET, an average man would be consuming 250 milliliters (ml) of oxygen per minute; an average woman would be consuming 200 ml of oxygen per minute. For those of you who wish to be even more exact, one MET is equal to 3.5 ml of oxygen per kilogram (kg) of body weight per minute (1 kg = 2.2 pounds). Since we are not going around measuring how much oxygen a person's body is consuming, assigning a MET equivalent can give us an idea as to how intense an activity is. At 1 MET (resting metabolic rate), a 55 kg female would use about 60 calories per hour, and a 65 kg male would use about 70 calories per hour. Two METS would be double that intensity, or consuming twice the amount of oxygen than at 1 MET. In other words, 2 METS means that one is working at twice his or her resting metabolic rate (which is relatively easy or achievable), 3 METS is 3 times someone's resting metabolic rate, and so on.
The ACSM rates moderate intensity using METS as decreasing with age. For men, moderate intensity by age is:
AGE (years) # METS (moderate) #METS (hard) # METS (very hard) 20-39 4.8 - 7.1 7.2 - 10.1 >10.2 40-64 4.0 - 5.9 6.0 - 8.4 >8.5 65-70 3.2 - 4.7 4.8 - 6.7 >6.8 80 and over 2.0 - 2.9 3.0 - 4.25 >4.25
For women, mean values are 1 - 2 METS lower than for men.
Some examples of how METS are associated with activity are as follows:
|1||resting quietly, watching TV, reading|
|1.5||eating, writing, desk work, driving, showering|
|2||light moving, strolling, light housework|
|3||level walking (2.5 mph), cycling (5.5 mph), bowling, golfing using a cart, heavy housework|
|4||walking (3 mph), cycling (8 mph), raking leaves, doubles tennis|
|5||walking (4 mph), cycling (10 mph), ice or roller skating, digging in the garden|
|6||walking (5 mph), cycling (11 mph), singles tennis, splitting wood, shoveling snow|
|7||jogging (5 mph), cycling (12 mph), basketball|
|8||running (5.5 mph), cycling (13 mph), vigorous basketball|
|9||competitive handball or racquetball|
|10||running (6 mph)|
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) standards for moderate activity are more succinct, defining moderate intensity as an activity allowing for sustained, rhythmic movements that are carried out at:
- an RPE of 11 - 14, or
- 3 - 6 METS, or
- 3.5 - 7.0 calories expended per minute (The number of calories per minute depends on a person's estimated body weight, fitness level, and intensity. Many charts are on the Internet that calculate energy expenditure for various activities, including the Fitness Partner calculator. An abundance of software, as well as exercise books, are also available for people who want to track this measure.)
Examples of such activity as defined by the CDC include mowing the lawn, dancing, swimming, or biking on a level surface.
Hope these explanations motivate you into moderate activity, so you can reap all its benefits.
The simple answer to your burning question is no, salt substitute will not make you retain water like salt does. As you had mentioned, salt substitute is different from salt because it contains potassium chloride instead of sodium chloride. Sodium chloride is a water-soluble molecule, which means that a high salt intake will cause your body to hold onto excess water. The same is not true of potassium chloride, which hasn’t been shown to cause water retention.
However, salt substitute is not a good option for everyone. Too much potassium in the body can build up in your kidneys and can cause damage. For individuals on certain medications, particularly to treat heart, kidney, or liver conditions, using potassium chloride may contribute to potassium retention. For these folks, salt substitutes are not recommended.
So, what are some other options for reducing your salt intake? Try experimenting with your cooking (or maybe start cooking more often — over 75 percent of the salt we eat comes from processed foods and eating out!). Instead of adding salt to your food, try using lemon juice, garlic, or garlic powder. Dress up your meals with fresh herbs like rosemary, tarragon, mint, or sage, and expand your horizons with spices like peppercorn, chili, and paprika.
It's also a good idea to play close attention to food labels. If a product is labeled “sodium free” or “salt free,” this means it contains less than 5mg of sodium per serving. “Reduced sodium” means that the product contains at least 25 percent less sodium than the regular version. But buyer beware: some products still have very high levels of sodium to begin with. For example, a cup of reduced sodium chicken soup might be labeled “low sodium,” but that reduction could be from 500mg to 300mg, which is still a lot of sodium for one serving! “Lite” means that the product contains at least 50 percent less sodium than the regular version, and “no salt added” or “unsalted” means there hasn’t been any extra salt added. But again, beware: sodium doesn’t only come from salt; many other ingredients are also high in sodium. Try to steer clear of products that include ingredients like monosodium glutamate (MSG) and baking soda (sodium bicarbonate).
As you explore your new food choices, you can check out the Get Balanced Guide for Healthier Eating for tips on healthier eating. You might also consider talking with a health professional before making major changes to your diet. If you’re a Columbia student, you can make an appointment to speak with a registered dietitian for nutrition counseling or to speak with a health care provider at Medical Services (Morningside) or the Student Health Service (CUMC).
The good news is that salt is an acquired taste – by slowly reducing the amount of salt in your diet, you will gradually rely on it less. Over time, some salted foods might even taste too salty for you!
We need a variety of foods for good health and hunger satisfaction. This includes dietary sources of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates tend to get a bad rap, but in and of themselves, they are not bad for us. They are the preferred source of energy for the body, fueling the muscles as well as the brain.
You mentioned muffins, which generally are similar to a piece of cake. They usually contain flour, sugar, eggs, oil, and other ingredients, depending on the flavor. Don't be fooled by bran muffins — most typically don't contain significant amounts of bran, the fibrous part of a whole grain. In terms of other grain foods, it’s best to choose whole grains.
To get a better sense of carbs' role as a nutrient and its effects on the body, here's a brief overview: carbohydrates are either "simple" or "complex."
Simple carbohydrates are made up of one or two sugar molecules. The three single sugar molecules, referred to as monosaccharides, are glucose, fructose, and galactose. These single sugars combine with each other to form disaccharides, which are:
Complex carbohydrates, also known as starches and fiber, are polysaccharides and oligosaccharides,which are long chains of sugar molecules. Starches are found in plant-based foods, such as rice, potatoes, beans, and grains. Fiber is found in a variety of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
Not all carbohydrates convert immediately to "sugar," or more accurately, to blood glucose. The digestive tract breaks down the long chains of sugars in complex carbohydrates into single sugars. Fructose and galactose do not immediately raise blood glucose levels, since they are first sent to the liver to be converted into glucose. Also, fiber is not digested by our gastrointestinal system, so it passes through, aiding digestion and contributing to feelings of fullness. Foods containing fiber often raise blood sugar more slowly than those without it.
However, there's more to a food than the amount it will increase blood glucose levels. Fruit contains many vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals (plant chemicals) that are beneficial to good health. They are generally low in calories, and certainly are a good choice for a snack. As a matter of fact, many fruits contain a good amount of fiber, and more fructose than glucose. Examples of fruits that don't raise blood sugar quickly are fresh cherries, apples, pears, and plums. If you're hungry, some days, a couple of whole grain crackers may do the trick; other days, a piece of fruit will do. If you're really hungry, the piece of fruit may not suffice — you may want to add a handful of nuts, or a few whole grain snacks to satisfy you. When different foods are eaten together, the rate at which blood sugar increases is an average of the various items, and is also dependent on the quantity of food eaten. In addition to providing a wide array of nutrients, different foods provide various textures, flavors, and feelings in our mouths (known as mouth feel). These aspects of food provide much satisfaction — think about how we'd feel if we didn't have anything crunchy, chewy, fruity, creamy, etc. in our diet. These are more than enough reasons to see why it's important to include an assortment of foods each day.
Hope this helps you make healthier choices.
It's great to spend some of your free summer time getting more physically fit by starting an exercise program. Indeed, exercise is one component of a healthful routine — especially if you're looking to drop a few pounds. Depending on the types of activities you enjoy, try to get either 30 minutes of moderate exercise (increased heart rate, but still able to carry on a conversation) on at least five days per week, or 20 minutes of vigorous exercise (sweating, breathing heavily) on at least three days per week. There isn't one "quick" exercise that will help you shed pounds, but if you follow the guidelines above, and eat a sensible diet, you'll be on your way to a sustainable, healthy weight for you.
In order to lose weight, most people need a combination of increased activity and reduced caloric intake. Beyond weight control, exercise yields important health benefits, including:
- reduced blood pressure
- improved sleep
- stress management
- increased level of good cholesterol (HDL)
- improved blood sugar levels (among numerous other positive effects)
We can't pick and choose where on our bodies we lose fat. Although it's possible to tone and strengthen specific muscles, fat won't be diminished in a specific area by lifting weights or doing certain exercises focusing on that body part. Body fat is decreased when we expend more calories than we take in — but we can't control exactly where fat loss will take place. For instructions on activities that'll help tone and strengthen your thighs, stomach, and hips, check out the Related Q&As listed at the end of this answer.
Since your schedule can be particularly tight, you can incorporate exercise into your daily travels. Biking or in-line skating to your destinations is a possible option, perhaps as a way to keep active during the school year as well. Taking the stairs whenever possible, getting off the bus or subway 1 or 2 stops earlier, parking further away if you drive, or even walking to work or school all contribute to your goal of being healthier by incorporating more movement into your life.
If you're looking for a "total body workout" for the summer, consider swimming — which can also be a cooling activity if your summer is a hot one. Swimming engages many muscles and provides cardiovascular benefits, too. Varying strokes can help work other muscles (such as the breast stroke) or provide greater cardiovascular benefits (such as the butterfly).
There's no secret easy answer, short-cut, or abbreviated workout that will yield magical results. Working each muscle group at least twice a week helps strengthen muscles. Although everyone responds to exercise at different rates, usually one or two sets of 8 to 12 repetitions, working the muscle to fatigue, is usually sufficient for strength building.
To maintain a fit body, it's essential to carve some time into your schedule for exercise and planning healthy meals and snacks -- however, as you can see, it doesn't have to be a lot of time. Scheduling these kinds of activities in your calendar as you would with social activities may help. You can also make plans to exercise with a friend, multi-tasking this way can give you plenty of time to socialize and exercise. Columbia students can score some extra motivation by signing up for Columbia's CU Move motivational emails. You can also visit the CU Move webpage for other physical activity related information. Best of luck getting started!
Regardless of your activity level, breakfast is an essential part of a healthful lifestyle and is also important for maintaining energy all day long. The motto here is anything for breakfast is better than nothing at all. Think of your body as a car and food as gas. Without gas, your car cannot get from one place to another.
The rate at which your body uses calories for energy is known as metabolism. Think of metabolism as the motor of your car. Metabolism is directly related to energy levels, so the higher your metabolism, the more energy you have throughout the day. When you are sleeping, your body naturally decreases its metabolism. When you wake up, there is an increase in metabolism, which peaks by noon. How much energy you have during this time is contingent on how much food calories your body has to use for energy. Breakfast becomes the first stop to the gas station before your road trip. So basically, eating breakfast actually helps maintain high energy levels throughout the day. In fact, the more hearty a breakfast you have, the more your metabolism motor will roar!
You do have to stick to some guidelines, of course, to promote optimal energy.
The best range of calories for breakfast is between 350 to 500. Below 350, your body will not fulfill the requirements for morning energy usage; above 500, your body may store unneeded calories as fat.
Plan and eat a balanced breakfast meal including complex carbohydrate, protein, fat, and a fruit or vegetable.
Quantity to Aim for
- 1 to 2 servings of complex carbohydrates. One serving equals 1 piece of bread, ½ cup of cooked oatmeal, 1 cup of dry cereal, 1 English muffin, ½ bagel, ¼ cup of granola, 1 small muffin.
- 1 serving of protein. For example, 1 cup of yogurt, ½ cup of cottage cheese, 1 ounce of cheese, 1 large egg, 2 ounces of smoked salmon, 1 cup of milk or soy milk, 2 tablespoons (T) of peanut butter, or ¼ cup of nuts or seeds.
- 1 serving of fat. E.g., 1 teaspoon (t) of butter, 1 t of oil, 1 tablespoon (T) of cream cheese. But check your protein and carbohydrates for fat, there's no need to add extra if you have a serving of fat in your granola or omelet.
- 1 serving of a fruit or vegetable. That is, 1 medium piece of fruit, 1 cup of cut fruit, ¼ cup dried fruit, 6 ounces of fruit juice, 1 cup of raw or ½ cup of cooked vegetables, 1 cup of vegetable juice.
Some examples of energizing breakfast meals include:
2 pieces of toast
2 T of peanut butter
1 medium banana
2 servings of complex carbohydrates
1 serving of protein
1 serving of fat
1 serving of fruit
1 serving of complex carbohydrates
1 cup of cooked oatmeal with
1 cup of 2 percent fat milk
¼ cup of raisins
2 servings of complex carbohydrates
1 serving of protein
1 serving of fat
1 serving of fruit
1 small muffin
1 cup of plain low fat yogurt
1 cup of orange juice
1 serving of complex carbohydrates
As you see, there are many delicious ways to get from point A to point B every morning. Imagine your surprise when you see the results with more energy!
Dear Perplexed by protein,
You're not alone — this can be a confusing subject. First some clarification — a complete protein is a protein that contains all nine essential amino acids (the building blocks of protein, which can only be obtained through eating food). Complete proteins come from animal-based products (meat, poultry, dairy, eggs, fish, etc), soy, and quinoa (a grain). An incomplete protein contains fewer than all nine essential amino acids, however incomplete proteins can be combined in meals to make a complete protein (for example by combining rice and beans or peanut butter and toast). These foods don't need to be eaten at the same time in order to be used by the body to build protein, as once was thought. We just need to eat these complementary proteins within 24 hours. Incomplete proteins come from plant-based foods, such as beans, rice, grains, legumes (other than soy), and vegetables.
Our bodies use amino acids from foods to make proteins. As a matter of fact, the amazing human body manufactures all types of substances — from hormones to muscle tissue, blood cells, enzymes, hair, nails, and many others — given the right proportions of amino acids.
All of the foods you mention contain amino acids, and therefore varying amounts of protein. Just because they don't contain all of the amino acids we need doesn't negate the fact that they contain some protein.
Although protein is a vital nutrient, our bodies don't require quite as much as you may think. The U.S. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of protein is 0.8 grams/kg per day for adults. This recommendation has been shown to meet the needs of 97.5 percent of the population. For a woman weighing 125 lbs (57 kg), her needs would be met with an intake of 46 grams of protein per day. For a man weighing 154 lbs. (70 kg), his needs would be met with 56 grams of protein a day. A person must be taking in sufficient calories to maintain their weight for these values. Dieters need larger amounts of protein, because some is burned for energy. Athletes require slightly more protein as well.
It's believed that people usually eat a variety of foods, thereby getting the amino acids needed to manufacture complete proteins. Granted, if a person only ate bread, s/he would be missing an essential amino acid. The same would be true if a person only ate vegetables. However, if these vegetarians added legumes to their diet, they would be able to obtain all of the essential amino acids needed to remain healthy. The Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences (which sets the RDAs) spell out the amount of each essential amino acid needed to form complete proteins. However, it isn't necessary to go that far, as long as you are covering your protein needs with a varied eating plan.
To determine your protein needs according to the RDA, divide your body weight in pounds by 2.2, which gives you your weight in kilograms, and then multiply that number by 0.8. Consult the following charts for protein content in various foods. Adjust for the serving size and the number of servings you actually eat.
|Animal Sources of Protein||Serving Size||Protein (in grams)|
|Cottage cheese||½ cup||14|
|Egg white only||1||3|
|Plant sources of Protein||Serving Size||Protein (in grams)|
|Tofu, raw, firm||3 oz.||13|
|Legumes: (Black beans, Kidney beans, Chickpeas, etc.)||½ cup||7 – 8|
|Peanut butter||2 T.||8|
|Bread||1 oz. (1 slice)||3|
|Vegetables||½ cup cooked or 1 cup raw||3|
|Pasta or rice||½ cup||3|
So, as you can see, it's not difficult to reach your daily protein needs, as long as you include a variety of foods in your daily intake. Incomplete proteins needn't be too much of a concern. Vegetarians who consume complementary proteins are usually able to easily meet their protein requirements. Columbia students who would like more information can meet with a Registered Dietitian who can provide individual counseling and help students understand and meet their unique nutrition needs. If you're interested in learning more about healthy eating habits for yourself, please schedule an appointment. Students on the Morningside campus can contact Medical Services for an appointment and students on the CUMC campus can also schedule an appointment with a Registered Dietitian.
Many women athletes, once they end competitive play, work on reducing the size of their muscles in different parts of their bodies. As both a softball and soccer player, you are most likely performing power movements in order to train your legs. These power movements probably involve lifting very heavy loads for a few repetitions while weight training and performing explosive movements, such as pressing off of your pivot leg when sprinting.
The amount of muscle in your thighs can be reduced, but it may hamper your athletic performance if you are still active in softball and soccer. As a power athlete, you probably have a larger proportion of fast-twitch muscle fibers (Type II) than slow-twitch fibers (Type I), found predominantly in endurance athletes. Most of your muscle type will not change, as the type of muscle fibers do not predominantly change over the course of one's life. Basically, you are born with the primary type of muscle fiber that you will always have; however, a small amount may adapt to changes in your workout regimen. Resistance and endurance training enlarges Type I fibers, while inactivity causes them to atrophy. Likewise, training may alter Type II fibers, which come in two varieties: hybrid fibers (Type IIa) and glycolitic fibers (Type IIb). Weight training converts Type IIb fibers into larger Type IIa fibers. With disuse, Type IIa fibers revert back to leaner Type IIb fibers.
If you are no longer playing or simply have a strong desire to decrease the muscle size in your quadriceps and hamstrings that make up your thighs, consider cutting back on lifting heavy weights while strength training. As opposed to performing one to four sets for three to five repetitions at a very heavy weight (85 to 100 percent of your one-lift maximum, which is the most you can lift for only one repetition, after which, you cannot repeat the exercise), begin doing three sets for 15 to 20 repetitions at a low weight (approximately 50 to 70 percent of your one-lift maximum). Below are some leg exercises to include in your training:
- Leg press
- Leg curls
- Leg extensions
- Seated and standing calf raises
Another option to lessen the size of your thigh muscles is to introduce distance running into your training regimen, as long as you do not have or are not prone to any joint pain in your legs. This activity can transform the size and structure of your legs. This is because distance runners adapt to this form of endurance training by developing leaner muscular legs (even though the muscle type will predominantly remain the same). You may consider starting with one mile and then build up to five to ten miles during a training session.
People may be genetically predisposed to have strong leg muscles in their thighs. This might not only apply to you, but also may be a reason for your athletic success. Although your legs may not look traditionally feminine, it's important to recognize their beauty in performing strong, powerful moves when scoring a goal or running to home. Since it sounds as if you're still active in softball and soccer, you might come to terms with your priority — to stay competitive in these sports, to play at a more leisurely level, or to stop for the time being. Your choice will determine whether, how much, and for how long you can transform the muscle mass in your thighs.
The bottom line will be deciding whether it's more important to you to have strong muscles that serve you athletically, or smaller muscles and less athletic prowess (or power). If you desire both, and you cannot change what is in your genes, then you may be able to change how you view your powerful, capable body.
A cup of warm milk is no magic sleep potion, yet it is probably the most common food associated with bedtime. Milk contains two substances that are known to be related to sleep and relaxation, the hormone melatonin and the amino acid tryptophan. The amount of melatonin in a glass of milk is minute, much less than what would be taken in a supplement. The amount of tryptophan in milk is also small. In addition, our digestive process is complex. Considering these factors, it is unlikely that a glass of warm — or cold — milk would shorten the length of time that it takes to fall asleep.
Though milk components and serving temperature are not likely to influence the onset of sleep through physiological means, warm milk might have psychological significance. The routine of consuming a glass of warm milk may elicit memories of mom, home, and comforts of childhood that help us to relax. This is part of the natural transition from wakefulness to sleep. Recommendations include practicing stress reduction techniques, sticking to a regular sleep schedule, creating a relaxing bedroom environment, and avoiding caffeine or heavy meals close to bedtime.
For some individuals, particularly those with lactose intolerance or milk allergies, a glass of milk can be followed by uncomfortable digestive consequences. Lactose reduced, soy, almond, and rice milk are options that are more likely to be tolerated. If you have no allergy or intolerance, and warm milk simply grosses you out, you could try flavoring it with a bit of honey, vanilla, or cinnamon, but there is no reason that you need to continue attempting to use it as a sleep aid. Keep drinking your cold milk, to meet your daily calcium needs, and try other sleep improvement techniques.
February 27, 2012507786
November 12, 200821491
I am a lover of milk and love it cold or warm. I have always had success w/ warm milk lulling me to sleep. I have even had occasions when I've had a decaf coffee drink w/ steamed...
I am a lover of milk and love it cold or warm. I have always had success w/ warm milk lulling me to sleep. I have even had occasions when I've had a decaf coffee drink w/ steamed milk and it did me in for the rest of the work day. It really has worked for me in all the years that I have been doing it. As a matter of fact, it's a cool night where I am tonight and I'm going to have a nice warm mug of milk and maybe add a little honey and vanilla, curl up in my bed, and read until I'm done partaking... yum, what a treat! Sweet dreams, ya'll...
January 10, 200721178
I have been having trouble falling asleep and do not wish to use pills. I have found that 1 measuring cup of warm milk does put me to sleep. There is very little time between the...
I have been having trouble falling asleep and do not wish to use pills. I have found that 1 measuring cup of warm milk does put me to sleep. There is very little time between the actual drinking of the warm milk and my being asleep. This is not usual for me to fall asleep so fast, so it must be the warm milk.
March 3, 200621030
Just wanted to add that in most microwaves a minute is all you need to get it hot. 3 minutes is like cooking!!
Just wanted to add that in most microwaves a minute is all you need to get it hot. 3 minutes is like cooking!!