Nutrition & Physical Activity
Dear Cart Pushing Professional,
Work life may get tough, but when push comes to shove, don't put your back into it! Your attention to your body is an excellent first step in pain prevention. While there are some things you may do to reduce your pain, it's important to know that your employer is also expected to provide a safe working environment for you, free of conditions that cause injury.
Remember when pushing the cart(s) or other heavier items, try to bend from your hips rather than your waist. You'll know you're doing this right if your back is straight and you feel yourself using your legs. If you have a "hump" when you bend or if you find yourself hunching as you bend and twist, it means you're probably putting more stress on your back. Try to move from your lower core, putting your weight on your glutes (butt muscles). Flexing your stomach muscles while cart-pushing may add more support from your core, as well, hopefully helping to take pressure off your knees. Another option may be to see if your employer may provide you with some type of support belt that may help distribute the pressure more evenly and support your lower back. Staying well hydrated throughout your shift may also help prevent soreness, and healthy snacks and meals may help you sustain your energy level.
Stretching is certainly a good way to help with soreness, as is the occasional massage. Unless you know someone, professional massages may be costly. If funds for an occasional massage aren't in your budget, consider trading massages with a friend or locating a massage school where you may be able to get discounts with massage therapists in training.
You also mentioned that the snow makes pushing carts more difficult. One thing that may help is a device consisting of rubber straps that you may stretch over the soles of your shoes. Lining these rubber straps are small, metal rings that dig into ice and snow, creating friction and reducing or eliminating slippage. Runners and hikers often use them to stay active in the winter months and they may be found at many outdoor and sporting goods stores at a low price. Make sure to use the kind that has studs on the entire sole, rather than ones only of the ball or heel. You may consider asking your employer to cover the cost or give you a discount if they're sold in your store.
Speaking of which, you employer has the responsibility to provide a safe working environment for you — they are required by Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA). Any employee of a private company may make an anonymous complaint and request an investigation. Even if your employer were to somehow find out it were you, they're legally prohibited from firing you, refusing to promote or give you a raise, or otherwise punish you from making the complaint. For more information, check out the OSHA website or call 1-800-321 OSHA.
Lastly, seeing a health care provider may help rule out serious injuries as the cause of your soreness and may be able to provide you with more information for pain relief and injury prevention. If you're a student, you may be covered by your school's health care plan. Columbia students can make an appointment by contacting Medical Services (Morningside) or the Student Health Service (CUMC).
Working hard is important, and ensuring that you stay healthy to continue working in the long run may be even more important. Try some of the precautions, exercise self care, and flex your employee rights — work doesn't have to be back breaking!
March 20, 2012508875
Dear Toe-tally Barefoot,
Aside from "getting back to nature," many runners who choose to go shoeless do so to prevent injury, though if you haven't experienced injury in traditional running shoes, there's little added benefit to switching. Running shoes aim to reduce pressure on the heel, but in doing so, affect the natural tendency for some people to run on the front part of their foot which acts as a natural shock absorber. Though studies aren't conclusive, some evidence suggested that the sturdy, built-up heels developed to cushion feet in running shoes may actually contribute to injuries, such as plantar fasciitis. Also, without the added weight at the end of your legs, your body may use up to five percent less energy during your run, which some people claim helps them run faster. The natural spring that comes from landing on the front of the foot may also add to this, but it's unlikely to increase your pace substantially.
By relying more on the muscles of your feet, toes, and ankles to propel you forward, running barefoot may contribute to stronger muscles in the arch of the foot and the calf as well as less pressure on your knees. However, for people who naturally land hard on their heels, they may need to take extra precautions. Shortening their stride and focusing on landing on the mid to front part of the foot may help prevent injury when running sans shoes. The extra workout also requires increased attention to stretching and massaging the muscles in the legs and feet before and after running to prevent strain, muscle tears, and scar tissue build-up.
At first, some runners who switch from traditional running shoes to being barefoot may feel discomfort in their feet, legs, and hips. Aside from the fact that your shoe-accustomed feet may require some sensorial adjustment, other parts of your body will likely need time to acclimate as well. One way to minimize discomfort is to transition gradually. Slowly build up distance (starting at a quarter mile to one mile every other day) sans shoes. If you're already a skilled runner, run with shoes for most of your run, then progressively increase the amount of time without shoes. A good rule of thumb is to increase distance without shoes by ten percent every week. Muscle soreness will likely occur as your body adjusts, but pain in your joints or bones may be a sign of injury. You may want to discuss your potential injuries with a health care provider.
For those with less skepticism about shoes, some manufacturers are producing minimal footwear, or lighter running shoes with flatter, more flexible soles that mimic the benefits of being barefoot. Less cushioning and elevation in the heel may offer many of the same benefits as barefoot running while still protecting your tootsies from the elements. To learn more about barefoot running or running in minimal footwear, check out the great videos and tips from Harvard's Skeletal Biology Lab.
No shoes? No problem! Just watch out for debris!
January 3, 2013521062
Dear Needing Antioxidants,
Microwave ovens may be a common and convenient fixture in many kitchens, but they have long been accused of causing cancer, radiation poisoning, and, as you mentioned, being weapons of mass destruction (of nutrients in foods, that is). No matter how you slice it, the act of cooking fruits and vegetables will destroy some of their nutrients because certain minerals, vitamins, and antioxidants cannot withstand the heat. The good news is that there are many ways to reduce the amount of nutrients lost. Additionally, microwave cooking generally does not cause any more damage to food than other cooking methods such as baking, boiling, or sautéing.
The study you mentioned noted that the broccoli was immersed in a large amount of water when it was cooked, which may have been responsible for such a high proportion of the antioxidants being destroyed; the nutrients likely leaked out into the water during cooking. Other studies have shown that when broccoli was cooked in the microwave with no water, the degree of antioxidant loss was much lower. The key ingredients to preserving antioxidants and other nutrients seem to be a shorter exposure time to heat while using as little water as possible. In that case, microwave cooking can actually be better than other methods of cooking, because it cooks food quickly and therefore reduces the time the food is heated. Other tips to keep the nutrients intact during cooking include:
- Leaving vegetables in big pieces so less surface area, and therefore less nutrients, are exposed.
- Cover your container to hold in heat and steam, which will reduce the cooking time.
- Avoid peeling the vegetable if possible; many nutrients are actually in the peel itself or just below its surface.
- Make sure you don't overcook your vegetables; take them out when they are crisp and tender.
If you are really concerned about getting enough antioxidants, you can also stick to choosing fruits and vegetables that you can eat raw, such as carrots, tomatoes, or cucumbers, or simply eating more of them. If an apple a day keeps the doctor away, think of what doubling or tripling that can do! Just keep in mind that not only is variety the spice of life, but it's also the best way to make sure you get all the antioxidants you need.
Dear Wanna Lose Fat,
The Internet can be a good resource for health and fitness information, but it's great that you are double-checking your findings. Especially because there is not much support for the claim that long cardio workouts cause your body to store more fat. However, there is good evidence that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is an effective fat-buster.
HIIT, or interval training, is characterized by alternating between periods of high- and low-intensity activity during a workout. For example, instead of running at a steady pace for 30 minutes, you could alternate between sprinting for one minute and then walking or jogging for two minutes. This fast/slow technique seems to maximize fat-burning. HIIT may work by training mitochondria (the cell's energy centers) to burn fat calories before carbohydrate calories.
In general, high-intensity or aerobic exercise burns more fat than low-intensity exercise. For example, you will burn more fat calories by running for 30 minutes compared to power walking for the same amount of time. What counts as "high" or "low" intensity exercise varies from person to person, and also depends on your heart rate. Check out Minimum and maximum heart rate for aerobic exercise to learn more about how to calculate your target heart rate during a high intensity workout.
Many fitness experts also recommend mixing up your workouts to include weight training along with aerobic exercise in order to build muscle and burn fat more efficiently. Finding a variety of ways to exercise that you truly enjoy (whether it's cycling, dancing, running, or yoga) will also help you burn more fat in the long run — if you're having fun, you may be more likely to exercise longer and more often, and avoid burnout.
Before you begin interval training or start a new exercise regimen, you may want to talk with your health care provider. You can discuss your fitness goals with a personal trainer at your local gym or fitness center.
Good luck finding a fitness plan that works best for you!
Getting the recommended amount of fiber can be a challenge, especially if you are limited in your food choices. Eating healthy foods other than whole grains is certainly one option, but with a bit of planning ahead, there are some other ways to make sure you are fulfilling your fiber and carbohydrate requirements.
If fiber is your main concern, then getting a lot of fruits and vegetables and taking a fiber supplement can help to "bridge the gap" on days where you must avoid grains. However, whole grains have a lot more to offer than just fiber. They may contain many other healthy components such as complex carbohydrates, antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals. Whole grain consumption has been linked to a reduced risk of heart disease, diabetes, and obesity.
Eating out is a challenge for anyone who has dietary restrictions, but thankfully some restaurants are adapting their menus to cater to clients that cannot eat certain foods, including wheat, dairy, gluten (a compound found in wheat and some other grains) and other common allergens. Consider talking with your server about your food allergies so they can notify the chef. They may also have some recommendations for you from the menu. If this is embarrassing for you to do in front of a client, consider calling or emailing ahead to ask about what items on the menu are free of wheat, corn, and sugar or how other dishes can be adapted to fit your needs. You might also consider ordering foods you can eat, such as salads, potato- or rice-based dishes, lean meats and seafood, and soups while out with clients, and snacking on complex carbohydrate- and fiber-rich foods before or after your business meals.
Checking out menus and calling ahead is useful because common food allergens can "hide" in places you may not expect to find them, such as salad dressings and some sauces. One resource to consider for finding a friendly restaurant is the Gluten-Free Restaurant Awareness Program website, which lists restaurants with gluten-free options throughout the US.
Since there are many benefits to eating a variety of whole grains, perhaps you can start taking some food with you when you travel, or shopping for food once you reach your destination. Since food packages must list all ingredients you can be sure you're getting what you need, avoiding what you can't eat, and you might save yourself some money in the process. Who doesn't like saving money?!
Finally, it might be useful for you to spend a little time with a dietician. A consultation could trigger many new ideas for getting the right amount of fiber. S/he is likely to present some creative and tasty options you may not have expected. If you are a Columbia Student, you can contact Medical Services (Morninside) or the Student Health Service (CUMC) to schedule an appointment with a registered dietitian on campus.
With creative planning and a visit with a professional you can be sure you're getting what your body needs to stay healthy. It might take some extra time and effort, but your health is worth it!
Dear The Wondering Diabetic,
As you've experienced, weight gain can be a common side effect of insulin therapy. Some diabetics do resort to skipping their insulin shots in order to lose weight, a disorder known as "diabulimia." Diabulimia is now recognized as an eating disorder that can cause serious health problems and even death. Diabetics and non-diabetics alike can safely control their weight through regular exercise and a healthy diet.
Normally, insulin allows body cells to absorb sugar from the food we eat. Cells burn the sugar as energy and any leftovers are stored as fat. Before being diagnosed, type 1 diabetics are often under-weight since their bodies are unable to use sugar properly. Insulin therapy enables type 1 diabetics to process sugar, and to convert excess sugar into fat, which then causes weight gain. Skipping insulin shots may seem like an easy way to lose weight, but denying the body insulin has harmful effects.
Without insulin to metabolize sugar, body cells are deprived of necessary fuel. To survive, the body breaks down fat and protein (instead of sugar) for energy, which releases toxic acids called ketones. This leads to a potentially deadly condition called ketoacidosis. According to the Mayo Clinic, signs of diabulimia and/or ketoacidosis include weight loss, excessive thirst, frequent urination, low energy, nausea, fruity-scented breath, neglecting blood sugar monitoring or insulin dosage, and uncontrolled blood sugar. Diabulimia and lack of insulin also cause sugar to build up in the bloodstream. Over time, high blood sugar can cause heart and blood vessel disease, nerve damage, and kidney damage.
Safe weight management strategies for diabetics (and people recovering from diabulimia) include a healthy diet, frequent exercise, and proper insulin therapy. Nutrition recommendations are similar for diabetics and folks without insulin disorders, and include eating mainly fresh fruits and veggies, whole grains, and a daily breakfast to keep your metabolism steady. The American Diabetes Association has several good resources for diabetics who are looking for healthy ways to keep off excess pounds and stay in shape. Take a look at their exercise plan and meal plan for diabetics. You might also want to check out Meal planning for people with diabetes on Go Ask Alice!
Before making diet or exercise changes, diabetics should talk with a health care provider.
Although it may be tempting to skimp on your insulin shots to lose a few pounds, diabulimia has serious health consequences so you're right to be wary of this weight loss strategy. Healthy diet and exercise are safe ways to manage your weight that will keep you healthy in the long run.
Dear Reader 1 and Reader 2,
Negative-calorie or calorie-burning foods may sound magically delicious. Alas, there is no such thing as a calorie-free lunch (or breakfast, or dinner, or midnight snack). The negative-calorie theory hasn't been officially debunked, but all foods, with the exception of water, contain calories.
The idea of "negative-calorie" food stems from the notion that the body uses more energy to chew and digest certain foods than the food itself contains, thereby creating a net deficit in caloric intake. Some foods commonly thought to have this effect include celery, cucumbers, and cold water. However, that doesn't mean that eating these foods should be substituted for your daily workout. The amount of calories your body burns processing these low-calorie foods is so miniscule that it will not make a difference in your body weight. Additionally, these foods have little nutritional value, so if your diet is limited to these foods you may be missing out on the many vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients your body needs to maintain health.
If you are trying to lose weight, it may be helpful to consider substituting so-called "negative calorie" foods for higher-calorie ones, such as celery sticks instead of potato chips. In fact, substituting any kind of low-calorie foods (including celery and other veggies) for high-fat snacks may contribute to weight loss. However, adding "negative calorie foods" to an already healthy diet will have a miniscule (if any) effect. Some foods will cause a calorie deficit, but this deficit is tiny (think single calories) compared to the number of calories the average person eats per day.
For more tips on healthy eating, check out the Go Ask Alice! Fitness and Nutrition archive. Additionally, you may find it helpful to talk to your health care provider about developing a nutrition plan. To really jump-start your weight loss plan, you can also check out your local gym, fitness center, or join an exercise club to get a move on adding physical fitness to your routine! Fads aside, a realistic, long-term weight management plan includes plenty of fruits, veggies, whole grains, and lean proteins as well as a decent serving of physical activity. Take care,
It's great that you want to stay active and try new sports or activities, both at Columbia and beyond. There are lots of resources for adult sports education in New York City, and with so much online information it's sometimes hard know where to look.
If you like exercising in the great outdoors, check out Central Park's list of activities and resources. This site has information on a wide range of activities, from road running to wall climbing, and much more. Some of the activities do have fees, so be sure to read the fine print. Also, many of these are not instructional, so if you're looking to try something new and want to take a class, you might look a little further downtown at Chelsea Piers.
Although you will have to spend a bit more money, Chelsea Piers just might be worth the extra cash. This place has just about everything you're looking for, including a wide range of sports, and all levels of instruction from beginner to advanced. The field house has basketball, gymnastics, soccer and rock climbing, or check out golf lessons and ice hockey. If Chelsea is a bit too far from Columbia for you, the 92nd Street YMCA (on the East side) also has classes in basketball, racquetball and volleyball.
If hitting the roads is more your thing (and you have a bike or are thinking of getting one) you can take advantage of the organized bike rides from the New York Cycle Club that are inclusive of all types of riders. If you prefer running over cycling, check out the classes offered through New York Road Runners. You can also check out Zog Sports and MeetUp.com for groups, often organized by neighborhood, that meet up to play a range of informal and formal team sports, from soccer to softball to ultimate Frisbee. Again, some groups have fees, so check out the details.
It's great that you're revved up to try something new. If you want a great way to stay motivated and connected, you can participate with Columbia's CU Move initiative. CU Move encourages members of the Columbia community to engage in active lives that include regular physical activity. The program provides participants with motivation, incentives to be active throughout the year, and event calendars with access to plenty of free and low-cost physical activity options on campus and around NYC.
There's plenty out there to choose from, so what will it be? Ice hockey? Wall climbing? Golf? Something else entirely? The choice is yours; whatever you choose, be sure to have fun!
Fish can be an important part of a healthy diet; it's loaded with high-quality protein and omega-3 fatty acids and low in saturated fat and cholesterol. It’s also true that nearly all fish have at least trace amounts of methylmercury. The good news is that many of the commonly purchased fish in the United States, including several varieties of tuna, typically have lower levels of mercury and are safe to eat if the amount you consume doesn't exceed the weekly recommended serving size.
To answer your question specifically, Albacore (white) tuna and light tuna are the two most common kinds of canned tuna. Due to its larger size, white tuna contains significantly more mercury — up to three times more — than light tuna. The EPA guidelines state that it's safe to eat up to twelve ounces of light tuna (or any fish low in mercury) a week or six ounces of white tuna a week. Considering that the standard weight of a can of tuna is six ounces, you may be putting yourself at a risk for mercury poisoning if you're eating two to five cans per day.
So why worry about mercury? It's considered a pollutant and is released into the environment, largely from factories and other industrial settings. It eventually travels to streams and oceans where microorganisms present in the water turn it into methylmercury. Fish then absorb this chemical into their bodies from the water. Mercury levels in the fish depend on what they eat, how long they tend to live, and where they are in the underwater food chain. Larger fish typically contain higher levels of mercury not only because they're heavier and have more surface area to absorb mercury, but also because they eat smaller mercury-containing fish, which increases the larger fish's mercury content. Because of this, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommends staying away from shark, swordfish, king mackerel, and tilefish from the Gulf of Mexico, since on average they have higher levels of mercury.
Most of the warnings about mercury poisoning are targeted to young children and pregnant women because exposure to mercury during development can cause neurological defects, including impairments in cognition, memory, attention, language, and fine motor skills. This is especially of concern because infants born with these impairments have been observed even when the mother showed no symptoms of poisoning. Mercury poisoning in adults can cause numbness in fingers and toes, muscle weakness, and speech, hearing, and walking impairments. And so far, research has not found that mercury exposure in humans is associated with cancer, but human studies are limited. If you find yourself experiencing any of these symptoms, it’s best to visit your health care provider as soon as possible. If you feel fine but are scared of prematurely swimming with the fishes, you might want to switch up your fish or seafood meals to include a variety of low-mercury choices, such as salmon, shrimp, pollock, catfish, cod, or tilapia.
The National Resources Defense Council's Mercury Contamination in Fish - Consumer Guide to Mercury in Fish provides tools that can help make this transition proceed swimmingly. It contains a list that informs consumers of the frequency that a certain fish can be eaten safely, as well as a mercury calculator that generates a safe value for fish intake based on a person's weight and type of fish. Lastly, if cost is of concern, there are many additional options for protein and nutrients on the cheap. You could also try substituting the tasty and affordable tuna with non-fish sources of protein, such as chopped canned chicken, lean deli meats, or beans; these can also be part of a healthy diet without breaking the bank.
It's often said that the more (naturally) colorful your plate is, the healthier that meal is for you. This saying holds true in the corn arena: Blue corn does contain more of the amino acid lysine and the antioxidant anthocyanin than "regular" yellow corn; however, it loses much of these nutrients when it's processed into a chip. Blue corn chips may be slightly more nutritious in this sense, but if you're trying to increase the amounts of lysine or antioxidants in your diet, fresh and whole fruits, vegetables, and lean proteins are much better sources.
Research has also found that blue corn tortillas (fresh, not fried into chips) contain more protein than their yellow or white corn counterparts. In addition, blue corn tortillas have a lower starch content and lower glycemic index (GI) than regular corn tortillas. Both of these factors may be helpful to people on low GI diets, such as diabetics, because food with a lower starch and low GI breaks down more slowly into sugars absorbed by the blood stream and can help people avoid spikes in blood sugar levels.
Keep in mind that chips of any color are often fried and can be high in fat and calories, so it's probably best to not make them a regular snack. Baked chips or crackers may be a healthier alternative, especially if they're made with whole grains. Look for the words "whole grain" or "whole" before the grain's name on the ingredients label to make sure it falls into this category. Fiber is another important consideration in a healthy snack, and not all whole grain products are high in fiber, so be sure to look at fiber content on the nutrition label. For more information on whole grains and fiber, check out some of the Related Q&As below.