Nutrition & Physical Activity
Hoodia has been touted as a succulent that has remarkable appetite-suppressing qualities, but thus far, those claims don't hold water. The Hoodia craze has been fueled by the pharmaceutical companies in the U.S. and South Africa who claim that the San, a tribe in Africa, consume the Hoodia to stave off hunger and/or thirst during their long treks through the Kalahari Desert.
Researchers have isolated a set of chemicals, called P57, thought to be the cause of the appetite-suppressing qualitites of Hoodia. Researchers injected the P57 into rats. It appeared to suppress the rats' appetites, without causing other effects. A series of follow-up studies have indicated that the chemical acts on the appetite-regulation center of the brain, which is located in the hypothalamus. Few studies on Hoodia's effect on humans, however, have been conducted. As a result, many health care providers are hesitant to support the use of Hoodia as either effective or safe.
The drug company Pfizer worked for years to develop Hoodia as an obesity drug but gave up after they could not create an acceptable synthetic version. What remains unclear is whether or not the supplement could actually help a person shed pounds, whether or not it could do so safely, what the long-term effects of taking it might be, and what dose would be needed for it to work.
Also up for debate is whether or not the San people actually consume the plant as an appetite suppressant. Many contend that the cactus is consumed for its water content. And even if it did work as an appetite suppressant for the San, the conditions of life in the U.S. are remarkably different (i.e., the San are more physically active, people in the U.S. consume a very different diet, and have more access to food than the San).
The final concern with Hoodia has to do with the lack of diet industry regulations in the U.S. As with many supplements, the amounts of Hoodia in each type can vary greatly. Some companies even sell Hoodia supplements that contain no Hoodia! Further, no research is available to support what dose of Hoodia is needed to produce the desired effects safely.
Overall, the research indicates that Hoodia is safe; however, its effects may be limited. Hoodia may be nothing more than a placebo. Check out I need an effective, short-term weight loss and toning plan for more well–researched methods of weight loss.
No matter the color, shape, or size, avocados are delicious — and nutritious! There are a wide variety of avocados on the market, each with a unique flavor, texture, and nutritional value. Thanks to alternating shipment seasons, people across the United States have access to avocados all year round. California and Florida produce the vast majority of avocados in the United States.
California avocados largely consist of the Hass variety, which are the most widely available type on the market. They have thick, leathery skin that turns dark green-to-black as the fruit ripens. California ships avocados throughout the United States, even all the way to Florida and other states on the East Coast. These medium-sized fruits weigh approximately 4.8 ounces (136 grams), and contain:
- Approximately 227 calories
- 2.9 grams of saturated fat
- 13.3 grams of monounsaturated fat
- 2.5 grams of polyunsaturated fat
Florida avocados are all members of the green-skinned avocado family. These have less fat, but more moisture than the Hass, and thus are not as sweet and nutty tasting. As they ripen, green-skinned avocados retain their light-green skin. Green avocados tend to bruise more easily during shipment because of their thinner skin, restricting shipments from Florida to primarily Eastern U.S. markets. These avocados tend to be larger in size, and typically weigh a hefty 10.7 ounces (304 grams). One green-skinned avocado contains:
- 6 grams of saturated fat
- 16.8 grams of monounsaturated fat
- 5.1 grams of polyunsaturated fat
No matter their hue, eating both black and green avocados provides multiple health benefits, including:
- Acting as a "nutrient booster" by enabling the body to absorb more fat-soluble nutrients in foods that are eaten with the fruit, such as alpha- and beta-carotene.
- Providing more than 25 essential nutrients, including fiber, potassium, vitamin E, B-vitamins, and folic acid.
- Providing consumers with a healthy source of fat. The avocado is virtually the only fruit that has monounsaturated fat (a.k.a. good fat).
- Providing a good source of fiber.
Adding heart-healthy unsaturated fats to your diet, available in avocados, nuts, and olive oil, may help you make the most of your fruits and veggies and eat a more balanced diet. One delicious way to eat avocados is using avocado spread in place of high-fat spreads, such as butter and mayonnaise. For more information, you can check out Avocados are fatty — are they healthy?.
See you…avocado go now!
Dear Dizzy and stressed,
Putting your health first during exam time can be a challenge, but if you want to score well, take care of yourself now! If you are experiencing such extreme dizziness and discomfort it is of utmost importance to seek out medical care immediately. Now, let's tackle some of the related issues you brought forward in your question.
Eating disorders, such as anorexia, can take enormous tolls on your health, including fatigue, dizziness, and/or fainting, irregular heart rhythms, low blood pressure, and dehydration. While you may have found a healthier place regarding anorexia, it is likely that your symptoms are related to your current eating patterns. These symptoms can have major negative effects on your body, and it is recommended that you take action as soon as possible. You may want to call The National Eating Disorders Association eating disorders information and referrals line at 1.800.931.2237. More information can also be found in Eating disorder resources on the web.
In your situation, it may be highly beneficial to learn how to manage stress in a constructive way. Fortunately, there are many things you can do to decrease your stress and up your wellbeing. Some people exercise, meditate, breathe deeply, pursue a hobby, and/or seek support from others. Don't forget about your ZZZ's, too! Chronic sleep deprivation (going for extended periods of time with less sleep than your body needs) can cause a variety of physical and psychological problems. You may want to check out The downsides of sleep deprivation for more on this topic.
Finally, you may want to address your smoking habits and soda intake. Excessive soda consumption (such as consuming at least 2 liters of diet coke per day) can have significant consequences on your health. Soft drinks are acidic, which can wear down tooth enamel and cause tooth decay. Too much caffeine can cause anxiety and sleep loss. For quitting colas, you may want to check out Getting off colas. Cutting out the chain smoking can improve your respiratory and heart health as well.
It may be a long and arduous road to addressing your health concerns, but it will sure be worth it (for your overall well-being and your academics)!
It can be tricky to check in with a loved one about the concern that they may have an eating disorder. You may be afraid that you'll say something that might shut them down or hurt their feelings. You may be afraid that you're mistaken. This worry may be especially great for you since eating disorders are more prevalent in women (though eating disorders are more common among men than many people realize). Don't let these worries stop you from having an honest conversation about what you have observed and what your concerns are.
First, how might you recognize if a loved one has an eating disorder? There are a few different types of eating disorders, but you need not worry about making an "exact diagnosis." The following may be warning signs of bulimia, but a loved one need not exhibit all these signs in order to have it.
- Frequent complaining or worrying about being overweight.
- Use of "purging" tactics for weight loss, including excessive exercise, herbal weight loss supplements, weight loss medications, laxatives, or forced vomiting after eating.
- Not wanting to eat in front of other people.
- Eating large quantities of food in one sitting.
Warning signs of Anorexia can include:
- Significant weight loss.
- Enjoyment of cooking and preparing meals for others without eating much.
- Significantly distorted body image — sees self as overweight, when he or she is likely significantly underweight.
Some people with eating disorders recognize that they have one, but are afraid to reach out for help. They may be afraid of being judged and/or losing loved ones if they open up about their eating disorder. Others may be in denial about having an eating disorder, while others may have such a low self-esteem that they feel, either consciously or unconsciously, that they do not deserve help. If you are afraid to check in with him about the possibility that he has an eating disorder, it may be helpful to know that eating disorders do not go away on their own and they can have severe health consequences. So the sooner he seeks help, the better his chances of recovery and the less damage that will be done.
But how to bring this up? There are a few good guidelines to cover that will help you convey a nonjudgmental attitude and also help ensure you are respecting your boyfriend's privacy:
- Make the basis of the conversation about your worry. Try to remain positive while also explaining that you care about him and because of this, you are worried about his health and his emotional state.
- Avoid comments about his appearance. Some people with eating disorders will not be affected, while others will be extremely affected by hearing your assessment of their weight (e.g. they may be flattered or they may be horrified. Either way, you may inadvertently reinforce their restricted eating or purging).
- Do not demand that he eat or change his behavior.
- Avoid placing blame or giving advice.
- Watch out for accidental "fat phobic" remarks that you might make inadvertently (in other words, avoid making disparaging remarks about weight or overweight people). Avoid making remarks even about your own body weight.
Aside from offering you nonjudgmental support, the most important thing you can do for a person with an eating disorder is to encourage him or her to get treatment. The longer an eating disorder remains undiagnosed and untreated, the harder it is on the body and the more difficult to overcome, so urge your boyfriend to see a therapist or his health care provider right away. If your boyfriend is a Columbia student, he can make an appointment with Counseling and Psychotherapy Services (CPS) or with his primary care provider through Open Communicator.
It may also be worth checking out the following resources:
- The National Eating Disorders Association's 24-hour information and referral helpline at 1-800-931-2237
- Eating Disorder Referral and Information Center
- Something Fishy Website on Eating Disorders
Recovering from an eating disorder usually takes time. Kudos to you for your patience and your willingness to support someone struggling with an eating disorder. This may at times be difficult for you, too, so make sure you are getting support, as well, whether it be through friends, family, and/or therapy.
Dear A Sip of Calm,
Can we actually find relaxation in a can? Seems like it could be a great idea, unfortunately, at this point in time, it's just too good to be true. Just like herbal supplements, the FDA does not require companies manufacturing the "relaxation beverages" to prove their claims or standardize their ingredients. As such, there is no conclusive scientific evidence that any of these products are safe and effective. What little research has been done has shown that many compounds in these drinks, such as 5-HTP and melatonin, degrade in water. Other ingredients such as GABA, cannot cross the blood-brain barrier so are completely ineffective. One study even tested five popular brands and found that many of the ingredients listed were barely even present in the drinks themselves!
Two popular ingredients in relaxation beverages that have been studied are valerian and kava and the news is not good. Valerian can cause dependency if taken regularly while kava has been shown to cause liver damage. These types of ingredients can also interact with medications such as Allegra or benzodiazepines (Xanax, Valium, Atvian, etc.) or even with Tylenol and cause serious health problems.
What's your best bet for relaxation? For starters, maintaining a proper diet, exercising, and trying to keep a regular sleep schedule can contribute to feelings of relaxation. You may also want to try meditation and/or yoga.
In the end, it seems as if nothing beats a glass of warm milk or hot (decaf) tea to unwind in the evening.
Props to you for wanting to donate blood! Alas, isn't it iron(ic) that one of the foods with higher iron content also may contain an iron absorption inhibitor? It's one thing to worry about getting enough iron through your food sources, but a whole other thing to worry about whether that iron is actually being absorbed. Boosting your hemoglobin by upping your iron intake shouldn't be too tricky, but know that there are a number of possible causes for low hemoglobin — being low on iron is only one cause (more on that later).
Let's discuss the raisin bran question first. Phytic acid is often found in foods that contain whole grains, including some types of raisin bran. In large enough quantities, phytic acid can inhibit your body's iron absorption. This is annoying since these foods may also be high in iron. In addition to iron absorption inhibitors, there are also substances that aid in iron absorption. The primary is vitamin C, which is often also found in raisin bran. Your best bet is to check food labels so you know when you are consuming foods that contain phytic acid (and also whether it contains a substance such as vitamin C, which will help you absorb iron). If food products contain iron and phytic acid, chances are you'll still likely get at least some iron benefit from them (especially if that food contains vitamin C, too); however, it's wise to have additional sources or iron other than raisin bran. Another iron absorption inhibitor is tannic acid, which is often found in red wine, coffee, some teas, chocolate, and some sodas.
So what does all this mean? Diversified food sources of iron will be your best bet in ensuring that you meet your recommended daily allowance, but there's no harm in making raisin bran one of those sources. Check out the Q&A's below for more information on iron, how much you need, and getting enough of it through your diet.
Now, are you sure low iron is the cause of your low hemoglobin? There are several other possible causes. Cirrhosis (scarring) of the liver is one cause. Some common causes of cirrhosis include alcohol abuse, hepatitis B or C, cystic fibrosis, and some parasites caused by chronic liver damage. These conditions, as well as the cirrhosis itself, would likely be accompanied by additional symptoms, such as fatigue, nausea, weight loss, and/or easy bruising.
Other causes can include certain cancers of the blood (e.g. leukemia, multiple Myeloma) or of the lymphatic system (e.g. Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma), enlarged spleen (splenomeglamy), or vasculitis (inflammation of blood vessels caused by an autoimmune response of various origins). Though anemia and iron deficiency are common causes of low hemoglobin, it may be worth a trip to your health care provider to rule out these other causes.
Happy hemoglobin boosting!
While it appears that androstenedione has helped some people (a few prominent athletes included) increase their muscle mass and recover more quickly from injury, there is no scientific research supporting these results. In order to help you decide whether such nutritional supplements are right for you, let’s first take a look at androstenedione.
Androstenedione is a direct precursor hormone to testosterone and other hormones including one type of estrogen. It is converted from cholesterol, as are all other steroid hormones. Specific enzymes and hormones, among other things, must be present and ready to work for these conversions to take place. For instance, luteinizing hormone, produced and released by the pituitary gland, plays a pivotal role in converting androstenedione to testosterone. Simply introducing extra androstenedione to your system does not automatically indicate that all of the necessary players will be there to produce testosterone or improve the productivity of your workout.
About sixty years ago, when androstenedione was first synthesized, it was shown to have both androgenic (male hormone-like) and anabolic steroid-like properties. The anabolic effects were considerably less than those of testosterone. Subsequent research found that testosterone levels rose after inhalation of androstenedione, but remained elevated for only a couple of hours, with peak levels lasting a few short minutes.
Beyond these cursory early studies, rigorous studies have come to two broad conclusions about androstenedione. First, despite increasing testosterone levels for those with low baseline testosterone levels such as women and older men, androstenedione has not been shown to increase the testosterone levels of young men or to improve the effectiveness of their exercise regiments aimed at building muscle.
What side effects can you expect from androstenedione? No one knows for sure. Androstenedione falls under the category of steroid hormones, which are known to have androgenic and anabolic properties. Therefore, androstenedione may produce side effects similar to those of testosterone-based anabolic steroids. The most dangerous of these side effects is the increased risk for cardiovascular disease, certain cancers, depression, psychoses, and even extreme aggression. There are also gender-specific effects. For men, these include shrinking testes, increased hair loss, enlarged breasts, and possible sterility. Women may experience side effects such as shrinking breasts and uterus, enlarged clitoris, irregular menstruation, increased facial and body hair growth, and a deepening voice. In fact, due to many potential negative health hazards, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has prohibited the sale of over-the-counter androstenedione and similar steroid-like dietary substances.
Is it safe? Safety can be difficult to determine when you don't really know what you're dealing with. Is it worth the risk? That's for you to decide. Before you begin taking any dietary supplements you may want to speak with your healthcare provider. S/he can answer your questions and give you more detailed information. Columbia students might want to consider making an appointment at Medical Services by calling x4-2284 or online using Open Communicator. Students on the Medical Center campus can contact the Student Health Service.
Sporting sexy things for one's paramour is one of the many perks (no pun intended) of relationship life. And it is a great testament to your relationship that your boyfriend compliments you. Some wise person once said, however, that "reassurance never reassures." So it is possible that his compliments may not be fully sinking in. In order to accept kind words from others, some part of you must also believe the statement. Have you noticed how you react when he compliments you? Are you able to hear and believe positive comments about your appearance?
It is possible that your low self-esteem, or at least your negative evaluation of your appearance, may affect you beyond intimate situations. Do you think this is true? In the western world, the skinny image of feminine beauty is everywhere. Any young child can tell you what an "ideal woman" should look like and very, very few women fit that standard (which is not culturally universal). Many people have internalized negative beliefs about themselves. These messages did not originate with you: They are the voices of young peers, family members, TV, magazine and billboard ads, and other mass-produced images of a standardized and very specific idea of beauty. Once a person has internalized a negative belief about the self, it can be very difficult to unlearn it, especially if you have held the belief for a long time.
So what to do about it? Here are some strategies to address your self-consciousness:
Gaining more insight. Many psychologists believe that suffering can be alleviated through insight. There are many different kinds of insight: You can gain insight about the source of your pain, insight about how and when it operates currently, and insight about how tour low self–esteem may affect other people. Source insight can be helpful because it can help you understand how and when the view was established. Many believe that people experience a type of liberation when they are able to make connections between early experiences and current thinking. You are able to see that your view of self originated outside of you and may very well be distorted. Gaining more insight into how others view you, you may begin to wonder if your own negative view of self is distorted.
Changing thoughts. Even without gaining insight, people can change their belief systems. Cognitive behavioral therapy is one way in which a therapist can help address distorted thinking or false beliefs that you may have about yourself and about your appearance.
Changing emotions. What are the feelings that come up for you when you undress? Do you experience anxiety? Shame? Fear? What emotions come up when you imagine yourself wearing something sexy for your boyfriend? What emotions do you notice yourself feeling when he compliments you? Do you feel happy? Embarrassed? Doubtful? Another benefit of therapy is that it may help you uncover some these emotions and which may allow you to work on changing them. Sometimes, negative self–esteem can be as much about someone's emotional state as one's thought process.
Fake it 'til you make it. Some psychologists believe that changing behavior is what leads feeling better. If you do the things that you'd like to do, even if they cause anxiety, you may eventually become "de-sensitized," meaning that the negative feelings may become less powerful over time and may be replaced by more positive ones, especially if you have good experiences when you take such risks.
A great deal has been written on the subject of body image and self-confidence. If you're looking for some good reads, here's a list:
- Joan J. Brumberg's, The Body Project: An Intimate History of American Girls
- Rita Freedman's, Bodylove: Learning to Like Our Looks — and Ourselves and That Special You: FeelingGood about Yourself
- Marcia Hutchinson's, Transforming Body Image: Learning to Love the Body You Have
- Ophira Edut and Rebecca Walker’s Body Outlaws: Young Women Write About Body Image and Identity
- Susie Orbach's, Fat Is a Feminist Issue
- Kaz Cooke's, Real Gorgeous: The Truth about Body and Beauty
- Judith Rodin's, Body Traps: Breaking the Binds that Keep You from Feeling Good about Your Body
- Linda Sanford and Mary Donovan's, Women & Self-Esteem
- Charles R. Schroeder's, Fat Is Not a Four-Letter Word
- Eve Ensler's The Good Body
- Naomi Wolf's, The Beauty Myth: How Images of Beauty are Used Against Women
Whatever you decide to read, seeking support may be another good option. If you are a Columbia student, you can make an appointment to speak with a therapist at Counseling and Psychological Services (Morningside) or the Mental Health Service (CUMC). Best of luck on your journey to feeling more positively and confident about yourself.
March 19, 2012508812
Trying to make sense of all the vitamin and mineral supplements on the pharmacy shelves may make you feel stuck between a rock and a hard place! Before you swallow any information, it is important to know that both ionic minerals and colloidal minerals have a lot of dubious marketing and advertising surrounding them. Manufacturers of colloidal and ionic supplements may make a variety of claims about their products — many of which are not confirmed by scientific research. Moreover, the body doesn’t need a whole lot of minerals; fewer than 20 have been judged to be essential to your health.
A colloid is a mixture in which particles are suspended in a liquid or a gas. Colloidal minerals come from humic shale deposits, primarily from Emery County, Utah. After collection, the shale is crushed and placed in water so that the minerals can enter the solution. Colloidal mineral distributors stress the “naturalness” of their product and have made claims about improving conditions associated with certain diseases, a practice judged to be illegal by the FDA. In addition, some advertisements state that colloidal supplements contain 75 minerals, many of which have not been proven to be beneficial to health (such as platinum, gold, and silver).
Ionic mineral distributors state that colloidal minerals have too large of a particle size to be absorbed by the body. Therefore, ionic minerals (named after their supposed positively and negatively charged molecules) were created to have the “correct electrical charge” and therefore lead to higher levels of absorption by the body. Although these supplements may actually lead to greater absorption, it is important to remember that there are various other conditions that must be present in the body in order for this to happen.
In reality, the body only needs minerals in trace amounts. Excessive dosages of minerals can actually be toxic. Therefore, before you experiment with any vitamin or mineral supplements, you may want to speak with your health care provider. A provider can help you sort out fact from fiction, so you can make an informed decision and avoid products that may be harmful or simply ineffective. In certain cases, you may be better off wearing these minerals than ingesting them!
December 11, 2012520002
Dear Big and Chunky brothers,
The big secret that a lot of people have been slowly learning is that most restrictive diets don't work in the long run. Being on a diet usually makes people hungry, tired, cranky, frustrated, depressed, deprived, annoyed, and anxious. Sounds like a recipe for failure, huh? The key to eating a balanced diet is to be mindful of what you are eating and how much you are eating. Aim to eat a generally healthy diet, but allow yourself to follow your cravings without guilt. Moderation is key.
So, what's a teen to do? First, take a look at your lifestyle. Are you sitting in front of a computer, TV, or video game system most of the time? You need to get up and get your body in motion! Having a friend with the same concerns is helpful, because being active is more fun with someone else. Make a list of things you could do together. Some ideas to get you started include:
- Playing some sport — outside
- Enthusiastic walking
- Riding bikes
- Walking up stairs
- Getting off at an earlier bus or subway stop and walking the rest of the way
Second, identify your usual eating routine. For many people, it's almost automatic to snack while working and studying, reading, or watching TV. Calories from junk food add up much faster than calories from nutritious foods. Hunger doesn't even matter. This is an unhealthy pattern that's hard to break. Most of us can be more mindful of our eating. We could make a concerted effort not to snack while doing other things. Eat only when hungry, rather than for entertainment. If one is hungry (and it is okay and even helpful to eat between meals), take a few moments to sit and have a snack. Not unlimited food, but a set amount on a plate or in a bowl — nothing out of the bag, box, or container. Good snack ideas include vegetabels and hummus, an apple and an ounce of cheese, or a rice cake with nut butter. When you are done eating, move to the next activity.
Eating three regular meals a day can make a difference. If you're a breakfast or lunch skipper, you set yourself up to overeat at some point later in the day. Build healthy meals by:
- Including at least one fruit (e.g., apple, orange, pear) or non-starchy vegetable (e.g., leafy greens, broccoli, carrots) at every meal.
- Incorporating one food that is a good source of protein: low- or non-fat dairy (milk, yogurt, cheese); soy (tofu, soy milk); lean meat, chicken, fish; legumes (beans, lentils, and split peas) or nuts.
- Making whole grains at least 50 percent of your grains during the day (that's a minimum of one meal or snack), and including items such as whole grain breads or cereals, brown rice, or whole grain pasta.
- Cutting down on fat. Although we need some fat in our eating plan to be healthy, it is a concentrated source of calories that can add up quickly. Making French fries out of a potato adds over 20 grams of fat and almost 200 calories, while a plain baked potato has less than one gram of fat and 220 calories. Choose fried foods infrequently and opt for baked, broiled, grilled, roasted, or steamed items instead.
The quantity of food you are eating is equally important in managing your weight. This doesn't mean that you have to go hungry. Rather, tune in to the portion sizes you are eating. Do you feel overly stuffed after eating? Are you truly hungry when you start eating? Perhaps you could be satisfied with smaller sized meals and snacks. Soft drinks are another source of excess calories for many teens. One can of soda pop has 150 calories, all from sugar. Drinking a liter a day could add over 3,000 calories to a person's weekly intake, or nearly one extra pound of weight. If this sounds like you, try cutting down, or switching to flavored seltzer or water. Look to whole foods to supply your meals and snacks as often as possible. Cutting down on processed foods, if that is an issue, should give you a good kick start.
Hopefully this answer has given you some "food for thought." Although there aren't any shortcuts to good health, increasing your awareness of your eating patterns is a good start.