Nutrition & Physical Activity

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Is juice as good as whole fruit?

Dear Joyful Juicer,

Juicers can be a great low calorie, high nutrient, tasty treat. However, they don’t generally carry all the benefits of eating the original fruit or veggie from whence it came.

If you've made juice, you know that it takes a lot of fruit to make a container of juice. Usually, juicers extract the juice and some pulp from fruits and/or vegetables. You’ll get all of the vitamins, minerals, beneficial plant chemicals (phytochemicals), and carbohydrates in juice that's extracted from a whole fruit. However, you won’t get much of the fiber, and depending on the fruit, you may not get any of it.

Fiber aids in the digestive process. It acts sort of like a scrub brush for your intestines and speeds up the movement of waste through your system. It also can fill you up, and may help protect against certain cancers. Fiber in fruit is found in the membranes between sections, the white part around the outside (as in oranges and grapefruits), the seeds, the skin, and the peels. For example, orange juice contains no fiber (even if it has pulp) because the fiber is found in the membrane, which is lost during the process of juicing.

It is also important to remember that juice is not a low calorie drink. An eight ounce glass of orange juice contains 110 calories — the equivalent of two oranges (each contains about 60 calories). But you won't feel as filled up from juice since it doesn't contain any fiber. For many people, drinking a caloric beverage, such as juice, isn't as satisfying as eating the same amount of calories in food. For those who need to increase caloric intake — such as athletes, children, or teens — juice is a great choice.

Fresh juice is certainly tasty and an excellent source of many nutrients. Less stable vitamins, such as vitamin C, are not compromised in fresh juice as they may be in some processed varieties. Also, watch for added sugar in many processed juices that can increase caloric content.

In general, juice is just fine. But if fiber’s what you’re after, go for the whole fruit or veggie over the liquefied form. Happy juicing!

Alice

Beans cause gassy discomfort — any relief?

Dear Patriski,

In terms of locating naturally occurring sources of alpha-galactosidase, unfortunately you won't have much luck. Aspergillus niger is found in rotting cassava vegetables (also known as yucca). The enzyme alpha-galactosidase is, in turn, isolated from the aspergillus mold and incorporated into Beano tablets along with invertase, a sugar-hydrolyzing enzyme. Alpha-galactosidase and invertase help to relieve gas symptoms due to their ability to break down complex sugars before they become gaseous. If you really like the effects of Beano, stick to it – however, there are cheaper ways to manage your gas that don’t necessitate the use of expensive dietary supplements.

Being knowledgeable about the following causes of gas can provide you with some additional comfort to help reduce gas production:

  • Gas can be caused by swallowed air. Try to eat slowly and chew your food thoroughly. If you tend to gulp beverages, make an attempt to sip instead. Carbonated beverages can also cause belching.
  • Sugar-free foods containing sorbitol or xylitol are poorly digested and can cause gas. Read labels to look for and avoid these ingredients.
  • Lactose intolerance, or the inability to digest lactose, the naturally occurring sugar found in dairy products, causes gas. Try eliminating milk products from your diet for a few days to see if your symptoms improve. If this is effective, you may be somewhat lactose intolerant. Look for supplements and food products that contain lactase, the enzyme needed to break down lactose during digestion, which may help you feel better.
  • High-fiber diets can result in flatulence (gas). If you have suddenly added a great deal of fruits, vegetables, cereals, and whole grains to your diet, the result may well be gastrointestinal discomfort. Try to add these foods to your diet slowly. While 20 - 35 grams of fiber is recommended as part of your average daily intake, you don't want to shock your system by jumping from low or medium fiber intake to a high fiber intake at the drop of a hat. However, you can eat lots of high-fiber brown rice without worrying about passing gas because rice is the only whole grain known not to cause gas.
  • Yes, beans do live up to their reputation, both for being a healthy addition to your diet and for causing gas. Here are methods for "de-gassing" your beans: soak dry beans for at least eight hours and rinse thoroughly before cooking them; if you buy canned beans, drain off the liquid and rinse the beans thoroughly before cooking. This will also help to reduce your sodium intake.

Keep in mind that gas is perfectly normal. Many people assume they produce excessive amounts of gas; however, it’s quite typical to pass gas around 20 times a day!

If none of these suggestions are helpful, talk to your primary care provider, gastroenterologist, or nutritionist about a "complex carbohydrate elimination diet." This is a strict diet that excludes all forms of complex carbohydrates and high-fiber foods (i.e., fresh fruits and veggies, and whole grains). Over time and as tolerated, these food sources are gradually added back to the diet. Columbia students can also reach out to Medical Services (Morningside Campus) or Student Health Services (Medical Center Campus) to make an appointment with a health care provider or registered dietitian. You can also take a peek at Columbia’s get balanced! Guide for Healthier Eating for more ideas.

Alice

September 28, 2012

516832
When preparing dried beans of any variety my grandmother taught me to pre-soak them over night with 2 to 4 tablespoons of salt and an equal amount of baking soda. Just before cooking them drain and...
When preparing dried beans of any variety my grandmother taught me to pre-soak them over night with 2 to 4 tablespoons of salt and an equal amount of baking soda. Just before cooking them drain and rinse them in cold water. She said that it not only made them cook faster but also cut down on the gassy feeling when eating them. Hope this helps you.

September 28, 2007

21332
My husband's grandmother always stuck a peeled raw potato in when she cooked her beans, and threw away the potato when the beans were done cooking, it always seemed to work well for us. The potato...
My husband's grandmother always stuck a peeled raw potato in when she cooked her beans, and threw away the potato when the beans were done cooking, it always seemed to work well for us. The potato absorbed the gassiness of the beans

Managing high blood pressure through diet

Dear Reader,

Hypertension is known as the "silent killer" and is one of the most common diseases of the cardiovascular system. It is defined as a condition of sustained elevated pressure in the arteries of 140/90 or higher. In this case, 140 is the systolic pressure. Simply put, systolic pressure represents the blood pressure against the arteries while the heart is contracting or beating. The number 90 is the diastolic pressure, meaning the blood pressure while the heart is relaxing or between beats. People who are genetically sensitive to sodium experience high blood pressure from excesses in salt intake. People who are most likely to be salt sensitive include children of parents with hypertension, African Americans, and people over 50 years of age. It is important to keep in mind that not everyone is salt sensitive. As hypertension in the body becomes prolonged, the risk for heart failure, vascular disease, kidney (renal) failure, and stroke increases.

Although there has been no cause identified for hypertension in 90 percent of people, dietary factors have been shown to influence blood pressure. People with hypertension can use the following food guidelines:

Avoid foods high in sodium.
Sodium causes vasoconstriction, the narrowing of blood vessels. Therefore, the amount of space blood has to travel through decreases. This decrease creates an increase in the resistance the blood has to overcome. This increased resistance makes it more difficult for the arteries to expand with each beat of the heart, causing the internal pressure to rise. High sodium foods include processed meats, salted snack foods, cheeses, and canned foods.

Eat foods high in potassium.
Good dietary sources of potassium include bananas, potatoes, avocados, tomato juice, grapefruit juice, and acorn squash. Potassium helps maintain intracellular osmotic pressure, which is the force required to stop the flow of water across a membrane.

Limit adding salt to foods, particularly in restaurants.
Most foods, especially at restaurants, are already high in sodium.

Use salt substitutes.

Eat calcium and magnesium rich foods to help reduce blood pressure.
Food sources rich in calcium include low-fat milk, green beans, sardines with bones, broccoli, spinach, and tofu. Good sources of magnesium-rich foods include any legumes and seeds, such as navy beans and sunflower seeds.

Lower saturated fat intake.
Saturated fat increases the level of low density lipoproteins (LDL), which tend to stick to the sides of the arterial wall. This deposit of fat is known as atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis begins with the accumulation of fatty streaks on the inner arterial walls. When this fatty buildup enlarges and becomes hardened with minerals, such as calcium, it forms plaque. Plaque stiffens the arteries and narrows the passages through them. Thus, blood pressure rises. This rise in blood pressure is due to the arteries' lack of elasticity.

Hypertension can also be treated with drugs, including diuretics, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, and ACE inhibitors. Talk with your health care provider to see what treatment is best for you, if you need it.

According to a Harvard research study, the DASH! Diet could be another possible way to decrease blood pressure. DASH! stands for Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension. The Dash trials began with 459 adults with systolic pressure of less than 160 and diastolic pressure between 80 and 95. The Dash study randomly assigned people to one of three diets for eight weeks. The first diet was the Control Diet. This diet had levels of fat and cholesterol that matched the average American's diet. It had lower than average levels of potassium, magnesium, and calcium. The other two groups were divided into a "Fruit and Vegetable Diet" and a "Combination Diet." The Fruit and Vegetable group matched the control group in fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and protein. However, the difference was that this diet had more potassium and magnesium. The fruit and vegetable diet reduced systolic blood pressure 2.8 mm Hg more than the control diet. It also reduced diastolic blood pressure 1.1 mm Hg more than the control. The Combination Diet had less total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol than the fruit and vegetable and control diets. The combination diet, rich in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products, also had more potassium, magnesium, calcium, fiber, and protein. This combination diet reduced systolic blood pressure 5.5 mm Hg more than the control diet. It also reduced diastolic blood pressure 3.0 mm Hg more than the control diet.

To adapt the Dash Diet into your lifestyle, follow these guidelines:

  • Make gradual changes in your eating patterns.
  • Center your meal around carbohydrates, such as pastas, rice, beans, or vegetables.
  • Increase consumption of fruits and vegetables.
  • Treat meat as one part of the whole meal.
  • Decrease use of fat.

For example, total number of servings in a 2,000 calorie per day menu would look like this:

Food Group Servings
Grains 8
Vegetables 4
Fruits 5
Dairy Foods 3
Meats, Poultry, & Fish 2
Nuts, Legumes, & Seeds 1
Fats & Oils 2.5

For more info on the Dash Diet, you can go to the Harvard Medical School Family Health Guide website.

Finally, weight loss is recommended if you are overweight. Obesity can worsen hypertension. Extra adipose tissue means miles of extra capillaries through which the blood must be pumped. Weight loss can be accomplished through aerobic activity. Aerobic exercise will utilize fat stored in the body. This, along with weight training, will increase your muscle mass, which, in turn, will raise your metabolic rate. Therefore, you will expend more calories throughout the day.

Alice
[Material adapted from:

Marieb, Elaine N. Human Anatomy and Physiology. CA: The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Co., 1997: p. 710.

Whitney, Eleanor and Sharon Rolfes, eds. Understanding Nutrition. Minneapolis/St. Paul: West Publishing Co., 1996.]


Importance of eating breakfast

Dear Breakfast Boycotter,

Your brain (and central nervous system) run on glucose — that's the fuel you need to think, walk, talk, and carry on any and all activities. Let's say that the last time you eat something at night is at 10 or 11 PM (not optimal, just an example). The following day, you don't eat breakfast but wait until about noon or so to eat — you've gone thirteen or fourteen hours with nothing in your system. Your poor brain is surely deprived — and your body has to work extra hard to break down any stored carbohydrate or turn fat or protein into a usable form for your brain to function. That's a lot to ask for when you're sitting in a classroom, trying to concentrate on reading, or doing any other work. Eating breakfast has been proven (many times) to improve concentration, problem solving ability, mental performance, memory, and mood. You will certainly be at a disadvantage if your classmates have eaten breakfast and you've gone without. On average, they will think faster and clearer, and will have better recall than you. School or work can be tough enough without this extra added pressure.

Breakfast skippers also have a harder time fitting important nutrients into their diet. Many foods eaten at breakfast contain significant amounts of vitamins C and D, calcium, iron, and fiber.

Some people believe that skipping breakfast may help them lose weight. Not so! Skipping meals often leads to overeating later in the day. Becoming overhungry often leads to a lack of control and distorted satiety signals (meaning it's hard to determine when you're full). This can result in taking in more calories than if one had an appropriate breakfast. As a matter of fact, it's easier to control one's weight by eating smaller meals and snacks more frequently.

What if there's just no time in the morning to eat breakfast? There are plenty of items you can bring along with you to school or work. Carry a resealable bag of easy-to-eat whole grain cereal, or bring a yogurt or small box of skim milk, juice, or fruit. If you just can't stomach food in the morning, try to have a little something — such as some juice — and bring along a mid-morning snack. Other good portable items include: whole grain crackers, a hard boiled egg, cottage cheese, low-fat granola bars, or even a peanut butter sandwich. Single serving hot cereals, such as oatmeal, are handy — all you have to do is add hot water, available at most cafeterias or delis.

Whatever your choice, eat something. If you think you're doing fine with no breakfast, just try changing your tune for a week —you're likely to notice a difference. You will undoubtedly perform better with some fuel in your system, and, hopefully, become a breakfast believer.

Alice

Why do we need vitamin A?

Dear Reader,

Vitamin A is an essential, fat-soluble vitamin that has many diverse benefits for humans. Vitamin A promotes eyesight and helps us see in the dark; aids in the differentiation of cells of the skin (lining the outside of the body) and mucous membranes (linings inside of the body); helps the body fight off infection and sustain the immune system; and, supports growth and remodeling of bone. In addition, dietary vitamin A, in the form of beta carotene (an antioxidant), may help reduce your risk for certain cancers.

Adequate vitamin A intake is essential to human health. Vitamin A deficiency can lead to night blindness (inability to see in the dark or to recover sight quickly after being exposed to a flash of bright light in the dark) and xerophthalmia (progressive blindness that becomes irreversible if not treated in time with vitamin A).

Vitamin A deficiency can also reduce the health and integrity of skin and other epithelial tissues. The effect on skin can result in dry skin and hyperkeratosis (the development of clumps of skin around hair follicles). The effect on epithelial tissues can negatively affect the digestion and absorption of nutrients and cause infections of major systems and their organs (i.e., gastrointestinal, nervous/muscular, respiratory, and urogenital). In addition, bone growth can stop and normal bone remodeling can become impaired, resulting in anemia and weakened immunity.

The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for vitamin A is measured in retinol equivalents (RE), retinol being the active form of vitamin A. For adult men, the RDA is 900 micrograms of RE per day and for adult women it is 700 micrograms of RE per day.

Despite its benefits, too much Vitamin A can cause toxicity, the effects of which can vary depending on its source.  Excessive intake of vitamin A in dietary form is not harmful, but will cause one's skin to turn yellow in color. In contrast, large dose supplements (10 - 15 times the RDA) of vitamin A (as retinol) is harmful, and could result in the development of a fatty liver (hepatomegaly), dry skin, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, weakness, headaches, anorexia, and/or possibly increase the risk of birth defects among pregnant women. Symptoms depend upon whether or not vitamin A intake was taken over a long period of time (chronic) or a single excessive dose at one point in time (acute). In general, fat-soluble vitamins should not be consumed in excess of the recommendations because, unlike water-soluble vitamins in which the excess is excreted out of the body, an excess of fat-soluble vitamins will be stored and accumulated in the body.

It is highly recommended that vitamin A be consumed in the diet rather than from supplements. The richest sources of dietary vitamin A are liver, fish liver oils, milk, milk products, butter, and eggs. Liver is an especially rich source because vitamin A is primarily stored in the liver of animals and humans. Vitamin A is also found in a variety of dark green and deep orange fruits and vegetables, such as carrots, sweet potatoes, pumpkin, spinach, butternut squash, turnip greens, bok choy, mustard greens, and romaine lettuce. Beta carotene is the most active carotenoid (the red, orange, and yellow pigments) form of vitamin A. In addition, cooking (but not overcooking) increases the bioavailability of carotenoids in plant foods and absorption of dietary vitamin A is improved when consumed along with some fat in the same meal.

Hope this helps,

Alice

St. John's wort

Dear M,

What’s the word on St. John’s wort? Also known by its botanical name, Hypericum perforatum, this supplement is derived from a yellow flowering plant. It has been used — with mixed results — as an herbal remedy for a wide range of ailments, including mild to moderate depression, menopausal symptoms, somatization disorder (when mental experiences are converted into physical symptoms in the body), and wound healing. Research suggests that St. John's wort raises levels of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine (different neurotransmitters that help boost morale and mood), but the active ingredient that produces this effect is still unknown. More research is needed to better understand how St. John’s wort works and what beneficial effects it may have on health. You also asked about the recommended dosage for this supplement. How much of the supplement to take and the number of times you'll need to take it daily will vary depending upon the condition you wish to treat.

Although the evidence is mixed, there are a number of studies that suggest St. John’s wort can be effective in treating depression without the side effects common to traditional anti-depressant medications (It’s good to note that it’s not recommended for the treatment of severe depression). Unlike prescription anti-depressants, which can cause side effects such as lowered sex drive and delayed ejaculation and/or orgasm, the same sexual side effects have not been associated with the use of St. John's wort. However, this does not mean that the supplement is free from potential adverse side effects, some of which include:

  • Fatigue
  • Dry mouth
  • Dizziness
  • Vivid dreams
  • Headache
  • Skin rash
  • Gastrointestinal discomfort, such as diarrhea
  • Allergic reactions
  • Irritability
  • Restlessness
  • Increased sensitivity to sunlight
  • Confusion
  • Anxiety

Due to the lack of scientific evidence, it’s hard to know how taking St. John’s wort may affect different individuals. You may want to be especially wary of taking this supplement if you’re:

  • Taking prescription medications. Anti-depressant medications, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), and HIV/AIDS medications combined with St. John’s wort can lead to possibly dangerous interactions. Additionally, St. John’s wort can affect how the body metabolizes medicine, which may make certain medications less effective. If you’re using any other medications, prescription or otherwise, it’s best to let your health care provider know before taking this herbal supplement.
  • Pregnant or breastfeeding. Limited research has been done on women who are pregnant or breastfeeding. Until more is known, women who are pregnant or breastfeeding are advised not to take St. John's wort.
  • Have certain health conditions. Components of St. John's wort may raise blood pressure, possibly resulting in a stroke. Those who are already at risk of high blood pressure should be especially cautious.

As a rule, it’s helpful to remember that "natural" does not necessarily mean safe. Since St. John's wort is an herbal supplement and not regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the quality of the supplement may vary. For more even more detailed information, check out the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine website. Before trying St. John's wort, or any other natural supplement, it’s recommended that you talk with your health care provider. Doing so may help you gather all of the necessary information to decide wort the best course of action is for you.

Alice

For more information or to make an appointment, check out these recommended resources:

Medical Services (Morningside)

Student Health Service (CUMC)


Back-strengthening and stretching exercises

Dear Reader,

The lower back is an area that's commonly ignored in strength training, despite the fact that it can be a painful area for many people. Strengthening exercises, as well as stretching, can help prevent injury and pain in the lower back. It is important to focus on the lower back muscles as well as those in areas that support the lower back. These include the stomach, hip flexors, and hamstrings (back of the thigh).

It is always recommended to seek the advice of a health care provider before beginning any physical activity program, including back-strengthening and stretching exercises. If you have a condition that could be affected by physical activity, it is especially important to speak with your health care provider in advance.

Here are a few lower-back exercises to start with:

Front lying chest lift:

  • This is a body weight exercise that involves no equipment at all!
  • Lying face down, place your hands (palms down on the floor) next to and even with your chest.
  • Keeping your hips and thighs on the floor, lift your chest off the floor. Assisted slightly by your arms as you lift, your lower back muscles should be contracting.
  • Make sure the back of your head is in even alignment with your spine and avoid tilting your head up or down.
  • Pause briefly when your arms are straight and then return to starting position.
  • Build up to three sets of eight to twelve repetitions, taking short breaks between each set.

Double knee to chest stretch:

  • Lie on your back with knees bent, and pull both knees off the floor toward your chest, holding your legs behind the knees on the bottom part of your hamstrings.
  • This stretch can be done with both legs together or one at a time.

Figure-4 stretch:

  • Lying on your back, with your head on the floor or mat and right knee bent, pull your right knee towards your chest.
  • Then draw your knee across your body towards your left shoulder. Try to keep both shoulders on the floor or mat.
  • Repeat with your left leg.

Cat/Cow stretch:

  • On your hands and knees, let your back sag (push your chest towards the floor) while lifting up your head.
  • Alternate the stretch by arching your back and keeping your head down.
  • Lean back onto your heels and hold, keeping your head down and arms extended.

Abdominal muscle-strengthening stretch:

  • Lie face up with your knees bent and your hands placed loosely behind your head.
  • Slowly curl your upper back off the floor while pressing your lower back against the floor. You should feel your abdominal muscles contracting.
  • Pause briefly before returning to starting position. Try your best not to put pressure on your hands, or pull your head with your hands.
  • Keep your breathing coordinated: exhale on the way up, inhale on the way down.
  • It is important that you don't rush this exercise.

Hip flexor stretch (a.k.a. Runner's stretch):

  • Stretching your hip flexors can help alleviate stress to the lower spine.
  • Assume a lunge position, making sure that your front knee is directly over your foot and ankle, and that your knee isn’t past your toes when you look down (your knee will be in the form of a right angle).
  • With your weight supported by both hands touching the floor, press your hips towards the floor.
  • Repeat on the other leg.

Hamstring stretch (straight leg raise):

  • This exercise will also help reduce stress to the lower spine.
  • Lying on your back, bend your knees and keep both feet flat on the floor.
  • Raise and straighten your right leg without lifting your hips from the floor.
  • Support your leg and increase your range of motion by placing your hands below your knee, around the back of your leg, and gently drawing your leg towards your chest while keeping it straight.
  • Repeat with your left leg.

If you have access to a gym, the lower back machine allows you to increase resistance as you become stronger. Try the following resistance exercises two or three times per week on non-consecutive days:

  • Sit on the seat with your legs secured and upper back in contact with the roller pad.
  • Push the roller pad down towards the floor, contracting your lower back muscles (Your range of motion should be comfortable).
  • Pause briefly and return to starting position slowly. Keep your arms relaxed and your head in a neutral position.
  • Use a weight that allows you to complete two or three sets of eight to twelve repetitions.

You may stretch every day once you've warmed up your muscles. Stretch smoothly, as opposed to bouncing, which can cause injury. For maximum effectiveness, each stretch needs to be held for at least fifteen to thirty seconds. Some examples of lower back stretching exercises include:

You can also choose structured exercises for strengthening your back. Yoga, for instance, is an excellent form of back strengthening physical activity. Many of the suggested stretches listed above are a part of poses and movements performed during a yoga session. Swimming is another excellent exercise for your back, because the buoyancy of the water offers some support.

Also, take notice of your posture. What position do you spend most of your time in when you are sitting, standing, and walking? For example, are you sitting at a desk throughout the day? If so, be aware of your posture. Make sure the ergonomics of your work set up are optimal for your body. If you have freedom to play with your workspace, consider using a balance ball as a desk chair even for part of the day. Sitting on a ball demands your posture to be proper and many of your torso muscles to stay active.

Again, it is important that you speak with a health care provider before you begin a new physical activity regimen. If you are a Columbia student, you can make an appointment with Medical Services (Morningside) or the Student Health Service (CUMC).

Hope these exercises and stretches allow you to attain your physical activity goals!

Alice

August 20, 2012

515244
These exercises are perfect for ladies and gents, only they have to do it properly for at least three months to get a proper result . Then continue 4 days a week.
These exercises are perfect for ladies and gents, only they have to do it properly for at least three months to get a proper result . Then continue 4 days a week.

Best time of day to exercise?

Dear Early bird exerciser,

The best time to exercise is the time that's right for you. Morning workouts really get some people going, release endorphins, and enhance mood. If you enjoy starting your day with a workout, or find that it's the only time you can fit it into your schedule, stick with it. Others find afternoon or evening workouts productive and stress-relieving. When we wake up, our body temperature and blood sugar levels are low, so our muscles aren't as "loose" as later in the day. In a perfect world, our muscles are warmer and fueled by a few meals (hopefully) later, well after we awake.

There isn't really a "simple" answer to your second query. It will be helpful, though, to ask yourself the following questions: How hard do you work out (intensity)? How long are your sessions (duration)? What are your exercise activities? How soon after you awake do you begin exercising? Your answers are important in determining what may enhance your performance.

For some people, exercising with no fuel (food) beforehand may cause lightheadedness, dizziness, and early fatigue. Research shows that eating before exercise, as opposed to exercising on an empty stomach, improves athletic performance. If you have three hours until your workout, have a normal breakfast. However, if you're going straight to a workout after waking up, here are a few suggestions:

  • If your exercise session is less than an hour, just snack on any foods that are easy to digest, such as bread, crackers, or a banana.
  • If your session is one hour or longer, get up a little earlier and have something small to eat — perhaps around 250 - 300 calories — such as toast and fruit or a small bowl of cereal and skim milk.
  • Drinking some water before and during exercise is important for hydration.

If you eat before exercising, make sure you allow your body some time to digest and absorb the food. During digestion, our bodies send blood to the stomach to help out with this process. When we exercise, our muscles need the blood flow, so our stomach becomes a second class citizen and digestion is slowed. If too much food is in the stomach while we're exercising, we may be uncomfortable.

Also take into account the type of food you eat and the activities you do. Some people tolerate liquids more easily because they leave the stomach more quickly than solid food. Some exercisers, such as runners, for example, would prefer not to have the internal "sloshing" around that liquids may cause.

General guidelines for eating before exercising are:

  • Three or four hours before exercising, a large meal is fine (500 calories or more).
  • Two or three hours beforehand, a smaller meal is suitable (400 - 500 calories).
  • One or two hours before, a liquid meal is appropriate (300 - 400 calories).
  • With less than one hour, a small snack will do (200 - 300 calories).

In addition, people tolerate foods differently, and the composition of the food matters. Fats stay in the stomach longest, followed by protein and high fiber carbohydrate, then low fiber complex carbohydrates, and finally simple sugars, which are absorbed fastest.

Sugary foods, such as sodas and candy, are absorbed quickly by the body and produce a sugar high within an hour of a workout. Along with a quick "sugar high" comes a quick "sugar low." People who eat sugar 15 - 30 minutes before exercising may experience a "low," with lightheadedness and fatigue, during their workout. If you feel that you absolutely must have juice or some sugary snack before exercising, have it only five or ten minutes before you begin. This way, there isn't enough time for your body to secrete insulin, a hormone which lowers blood sugar, causing fatiguing symptoms. Since everyone reacts differently, try various strategies to determine what helps you the most. No matter what, drink water before, during, and after exercise. And, have breakfast afterwards, especially if you haven't had anything to eat earlier, since this will replace glycogen stores and will keep you going all morning long.

For more information about staying active while at Columbia, check out CU Move, a physical activity initiative open to all Columbia students, faculty, alumni, and staff. CUMove posts updates regularly and also sends out monthly CU Move emails. For more frequent updates, “Like” CUMove on Facebook. Keep moving!

Alice

November 14, 2014

591055
very helpful information...thank you
very helpful information...thank you

Liposuction — Permanent fat removal?

Dear Reader,

You and your husband are probably not the only ones having this debate. Various health professionals have also been in disagreement regarding the long-term outcomes of liposuction. The problem is that much of our evidence about the long-term outcomes of liposuction is based on anecdotes, which indicate that some people maintain the weight/fat loss, others re-gain the weight, and some people even gain more weight/fat than their pre-liposuction amounts. This debate will likely continue for some time.

Truth be told, multiple factors including gender, age, lifestyle, and genetic factors all impact weight. A one-time removal of 4-6 pounds of fat (even in very obese individuals no more than 20 pounds of fat is typically removed in one surgical procedure) must be accompanied by dietary changes and physical activity to maintain the weight loss. In the absence of these lifestyle changes, the individual can regain weight (and fat) that was lost during the liposuction procedure. While liposuction does remove entire fat cells, the fat cells remaining in the body can increase in size and can signal that more fat cells be created if there is an excess of fat in the body that must be stored. In other words, if the individual eats more calories than the body can store with its current supply of fat cells, the body will create more storage space to accommodate the excess fat.

Regarding your husband's argument, people are not born with all of the fat cells they will ever develop. Instead, cell number continues to increase throughout adolescence. After this point fat cell number may become fixed unless the individual gains a significant amount of weight. In this case, existing fat cells will be filled to their limit of about 1.0 microgram of fat per cell (normal is approximately 0.5 - 0.6 of a microgram), and more fat cells may be produced if needed. Pregnancy also seems to permit formation of new fat cells.

Cosmetic motivations aside, some people may opt for surgeries like liposuction to reverse medical complications from extreme obesity. However, research suggests that losing weight by achieving a negative energy balance (by reducing food intake and increasing energy expended through exercise) is important for achieving the metabolic benefits that go along with weight loss (like decreased risk for chronic diseases, increased endurance, and so on) (1). Also, liposuction procedures tend to target the abdominal area and sometimes the back of the upper arms and legs, but fat can be deposited in muscle, on organs, and in several other places throughout the body. These other locations where fat may be stored would be reduced in size when the person loses weight the traditional way. Although some good research has been done, more research with large sample sizes studying the long-term effects of liposuction is needed.

Alice
(1) Klein, S., Fontana, L., Young, V.L., Coggan, A.R., Kilo, C., Patterson, B.W., & Mohammed, B.S. (2004). Absence of an effect of liposuction on insulin action and risk factors for coronary heart diseases. The New England Journal of Medicine; 350(25), 2549-2557.

How to eat your veggies, even if you don't like them

Dear Reader,

Eating fruits and vegetables is an essential part of maintaining good health. In 2011, the USDA launched its most recent food guide called Choose My Plate. Most health professionals and health promotion organizations, including the USDA, recommend eating at least five servings of fruits and vegetables daily. Or, in the case of the Choose My Plate campaign, make half of your plate fruits and vegetables.

Since eating vegetables is not very appealing to you, let's start by discussing ways to incorporate some essential vitamins and minerals into your diet via fruit. Look to a wide variety of fruits to take in more vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals, which are plant substances that may ward off heart disease and certain forms of cancer. For example, a fruit salad composed of oranges, assorted berries, grapes, kiwi, bananas, apples, and peaches with fresh lime juice squeezed over it can be enjoyed as a delicious part of any meal or on its own as a snack. A piece of fruit, such as an apple or a pear, is also an excellent dessert and can be paired with protein, such as nut butter or cheese, to make a well balanced snack.

Now let's move to the incorporation of vegetables in a positive way. Vegetables can taste bitter, particularly when eaten raw. A good place to begin may be experimenting with roasting a few different vegetables to see what you may like. Roasting vegetables brings out their sweetness via a process called caramelization, which reveals the sugars in vegetables, causing them to taste sweeter. This works particularly well with root vegetables, such as onions, potatoes, sweet potatoes, turnips, and carrots. To roast vegetables, simply cut them into one-inch squares, toss with olive oil, salt, and pepper, place on a baking sheet, and put in an oven at 450 degrees for 30 to 40 minutes, tossing and turning throughout cooking. You will know they are done when they are golden brown, slightly crispy on the outside, and soft on the inside. Broccoli and cauliflower are also delicious when roasted. Feel free to experiment by adding grated parmesan or other cheeses, herbs, and spices to the vegetables after roasting. You can also look to "sweeter" vegetables, such as corn, peas, tomatoes, and carrots and incorporate them into pasta or rice dishes or put them together to make a salad. The get balanced! nutrition initiative offers some recipes to get you started, such as the Cilantro Corn Tomato Salad.

It is also possible to disguise vegetables in your food, similar to the way some parents do when their children don't eat their veggies. This is typically done using vegetable purees, which can be made at home simply by microwaving a vegetable and then pureeing it, or can be found in the freezer section (most often found are pureed sweet potatoes or squash) or as jars of baby food in the children's section of your grocery store. Purees can be added to stew, soup, pasta sauce, baked goods, etc.; the options are endless. There are several good cookbooks available that offer recipes that incorporate vegetable purees. You can also sneak in an extra veggie by making fruit smoothies with spinach added in — all you'll taste is the fruit!

In addition to purees, you can also incorporate vegetables into other foods. Examples include:

  • Make omelets with tomatoes, peppers, and/or mushrooms — be sure to sauté the vegetables first before adding the eggs.
  • Add broccoli and/or olives to your pizza.
  • Add chopped spinach and/or grated carrots and onions to turkey burgers or meatloaf.
  • Mix chopped carrot and celery into tuna or chicken salad.
  • Choose soups rich in vegetables, such as Minestrone or Gumbo.
  • Add peas, carrots, and/or zucchini to rice pilaf.

It's difficult to "force" yourself into liking a specific food, especially if you are turned off by the taste. Luckily, you can choose from a variety of vegetable options and cooking methods. Keep an open mind (and mouth), and perhaps you will come to enjoy some of these foods!

For more tips about healthy eating, fruits, and vegetables, check out the Optimal Nutrition section of the Go Ask Alice! archive, learn more about the tools from Choosemyplate.gov.

Alice

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