Dear Overactive eater,
Generally, a case of the munchies is your body's way of signaling that it's time to refuel. If snacks and even full meals don't fill you up, there may be another cause for your ongoing hunger. If diet changes don't do the trick, a visit to a health care provider may ease your mind and your appetite.
Based on your description, it sounds like you can rule out the possibility of a digestive parasite. Rather than fueling your hunger, most stomach bugs cause digestive troubles like nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea that can kill your appetite. There is one infamous bug, the Taeniasis parasite (aka tapeworm), that is often blamed for insatiable appetites or unintended weight loss. However, Taeniasis is acquired by eating infected pork or beef so it's not likely that you have a tapeworm since you've been vegetarian for years.
As you suggested, people who follow a vegetarian diet sometimes don't get enough protein. These power nutrients give your body energy and also help you feel full, more so than carbs or fruits and vegetables. Vegetarians also need to consider the kind of proteins they eat. Unlike meats, individual plant foods don't supply all the amino acids that your body needs. To make sure you're getting a complete protein package, try combing two complementary foods that offer different amino acids from these four protein groups: grains, legumes or beans, seeds and nuts, and eggs and dairy. For example, a PBJ sandwich combines grains (go for whole wheat bread!) and legumes (peanuts) for a complete protein. Similarly, a yogurt parfait with fruit and almonds complements dairy with nuts. Newer research has indicated that protein pairings need not be consumed at the same time. That is, it should be sufficient to combine the complementary foods within the same day. For more tasty protein pairings, check out the related Q&As below about protein sources.
Another source of satisfaction comes from eating enough fat. Depending on your level of physical activity and other factors your fat needs will vary. However recent research shows that eating moderate amounts of healthy fats can really help satisfy. In addition to nuts, think avocado and healthy oils (canola, olive, safflower, trans-fat free spreads). Check out ChoseMyPlate.gov to calculate your calorie, protein, fat, and carb needs and determine whether what you're eating should be filling you up.
To make sure you're eating enough of the right proteins and fats as part of a balanced diet, it may also be helpful for you to keep a food journal. You can use the journal to plan out meals, make grocery lists that include healthy and filling snacks, and record when and what you eat throughout the day (and night). The food journal may help you answer some key questions to explain the uptick in your appetite. For example, are you eating enough calories throughout the day to make you feel full? Do your tummy rumblings coincide with any particular emotions like stress, sadness, or happiness? If you do end up seeing a health care provider, the journal will help them understand your diet and what might be causing your excess hunger.
If diet changes don't seem to satisfy your hunger, there may be an underlying health condition that's giving you the munchies. According to the National Institute of Health, causes of increased appetite may include:
- Certain medications (such as corticosteroids and some antidepressants)
- Grave's disease
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
List adapted from the article Appetite - increased at MedlinePlus
Since there are a variety of explanations for your hunger pangs, if adding a healthy balance of proteins and fats to your plate won't satiate your appetite, your best bet is to see a health care provider. Getting medical attention is a good idea especially if you have any other unexplained symptoms like frequent urination, increased heart rate, or feeling very thirsty. Students at Columbia on the Morningside campus can call 212-854-7426 or log on to Open Communicator to make an appointment with a health care provider or nutritionist at Medical Services. If you are a student on the CUMC campus, give the Student Health Center a call at 212-305-3400 to make an appointment with a health care provider or nutritionist.
Fueling up with more complete proteins and healthy fats may help you feel full and keep your body running strong. If your hunger still hangs around, visit a health care provider to find out what your body needs to fill up and feel good. Take care,
Dear Reader #1 and Reader #2,
Negative-calorie or calorie-burning foods may sound magically delicious. Alas, there is no such thing as a calorie-free lunch (or breakfast, or dinner, or midnight snack). The negative-calorie theory hasn't been officially debunked, but all foods, with the exception of water, contain calories.
The idea of "negative-calorie" food stems from the notion that the body uses more energy to chew and digest certain foods than the food itself contains, thereby creating a net deficit in caloric intake. Some foods commonly thought to have this effect include celery, cucumbers, and cold water. However, that doesn't mean that eating these foods should be substituted for your daily workout. The amount of calories your body burns processing these low-calorie foods is so miniscule that it will not make a difference in your body weight. Additionally, these foods have little nutritional value, so if your diet is limited to these foods you may be missing out on the many vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients your body needs to maintain health.
If you are trying to lose weight, it may be helpful to consider substituting so-called "negative calorie" foods for higher-calorie ones, such as celery sticks instead of potato chips. In fact, substituting any kind of low-calorie foods (including celery and other veggies) for high-fat snacks may contribute to weight loss. However, adding "negative calorie foods" to an already healthy diet will have a miniscule (if any) effect. Some foods will cause a calorie deficit, but this deficit is tiny (think single calories) compared to the number of calories the average person eats per day.
For more tips on healthy eating, check out the Go Ask Alice! Nutrition & Physical Activity archive. Additionally, you may find it helpful to talk to your health care provider about developing a nutrition plan. To really jump-start your weight loss plan, you can also check out your local gym, fitness center, or join an exercise club to get a move on adding physical fitness to your routine! Fads aside, a realistic, long-term weight management plan includes plenty of fruits, veggies, whole grains, and lean proteins as well as a decent serving of physical activity. Take care,
Getting the recommended amount of fiber can be a challenge, especially if you are limited in your food choices. Eating healthy foods other than whole grains is certainly one option, but with a bit of planning ahead, there are some other ways to make sure you are fulfilling your fiber and carbohydrate requirements.
If fiber is your main concern, then getting a lot of fruits and vegetables and taking a fiber supplement can help to "bridge the gap" on days where you must avoid grains. However, whole grains have a lot more to offer than just fiber. They may contain many other healthy components such as complex carbohydrates, antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals. Whole grain consumption has been linked to a reduced risk of heart disease, diabetes, and obesity.
Eating out is a challenge for anyone who has dietary restrictions, but thankfully some restaurants are adapting their menus to cater to clients that cannot eat certain foods, including wheat, dairy, gluten (a compound found in wheat and some other grains) and other common allergens. Consider talking with your server about your food allergies so they can notify the chef. They may also have some recommendations for you from the menu. If this is embarrassing for you to do in front of a client, consider calling or emailing ahead to ask about what items on the menu are free of wheat, corn, and sugar or how other dishes can be adapted to fit your needs. You might also consider ordering foods you can eat, such as salads, potato- or rice-based dishes, lean meats and seafood, and soups while out with clients, and snacking on complex carbohydrate- and fiber-rich foods before or after your business meals.
Checking out menus and calling ahead is useful because common food allergens can "hide" in places you may not expect to find them, such as salad dressings and some sauces. One resource to consider for finding a friendly restaurant is the Gluten-Free Restaurant Awareness Program website, which lists restaurants with gluten-free options throughout the US.
Since there are many benefits to eating a variety of whole grains, perhaps you can start taking some food with you when you travel, or shopping for food once you reach your destination. Since food packages must list all ingredients you can be sure you're getting what you need, avoiding what you can't eat, and you might save yourself some money in the process. Who doesn't like saving money?!
Finally, it might be useful for you to spend a little time with a dietician. A consultation could trigger many new ideas for getting the right amount of fiber. S/he is likely to present some creative and tasty options you may not have expected. If you are a Columbia Student, you can contact Medical Services (Morninside) or the Student Health Service (CUMC) to schedule an appointment with a registered dietitian on campus.
With creative planning and a visit with a professional you can be sure you're getting what your body needs to stay healthy. It might take some extra time and effort, but your health is worth it!
Fortunately for people who wish to lose weight, there are universal rules that apply, regardless of your typical diet — whether you're a vegetarian or omnivore. First, to lose weight a person has to use more energy (calories) than s/he takes in. To achieve this deficit you can either make dietary changes (so you're taking in less calories), get more physical activity (so you're using more calories in a day), or you can make changes in both areas. Experts recommend making both dietary changes and getting more physical activity for the best results.
It takes a deficit of about 3500 calories to lose one pound of body weight. This means if you are able to cut 500 calories per day from your regular diet you should be able to lose a pound a week (a healthy weight loss rate). It may be beneficial to consider finding the right balance of increasing your physical activity and decreasing caloric intake. You can check out the ChooseMyPlate.gov SuperTracker as a resource that can help you calculate how many calories you need per day, what nutrients are in the foods you eat, and how many calories you burn doing different exercises.
Some suggestions for dietary changes to reduce calories:
- Steam, boil or bake foods instead of frying in butter or oil.
- Sauté foods in vegetable broth, wine, or water instead of oil.
- Limit of high-fat condiments (like mayonnaise, margarine, sour cream, cream cheese, salad dressing, etc.).
- Try low-fat dairy products and nut- or peanut butter. Vegetarians sometimes begin to rely heavily on these foods as sources of protein, but low-fat dairy and nut products provide the same amount of protein as their full-fat counterparts.
- Add beans and legumes to your diet as low-fat sources of protein.
- Eat actual fruit or vegetables rather than drinking them in juice or smoothie form. The fiber in fresh produce works well to satisfy hunger.
- Substitute water, tea, and diet beverages for regular soda, juices, and other high-sugar drinks.
- Limit the amount of alcoholic beverages consumed (empty calories for everyone).
- Begin lunch or dinner with a broth-based, vegetable filled soup or a large salad with a small amount of low-fat or fat-free dressing. These foods take longer to eat and can help curb your hunger so you don't overeat during the rest of the meal.
Be mindful of portion sizes — read nutrition fact labels to find out serving sizes. Some rules of thumb:
- A medium apple or orange is the size of a tennis ball.
- A medium potato is the size of a computer mouse.
- An average bagel is the size of a hockey puck.
- An ounce of cheese is size of four dice.
Some suggestions for incorporating more physical activity into your day:
- Take the stairs as often as possible.
- Park at the far end of the parking lot or get off the bus or subway a stop early.
- Schedule your cardiovascular exercise (walking, jogging, swimming, biking, frantically cleaning your apartment before visitors come over, etc.) so you know you will be able to fit it in. If you're at Columbia, you can participate with CU Move to help stay motivated with your physical activity efforts and earn incentives. Check out the site to learn more.
Hopefully, you'll find some of these suggestions new and helpful. Good luck!
Regardless of your activity level, breakfast is an essential part of a healthful lifestyle and is also important for maintaining energy all day long. The motto here is anything for breakfast is better than nothing at all. Think of your body as a car and food as gas. Without gas, your car cannot get from one place to another.
The rate at which your body uses calories for energy is known as metabolism. Think of metabolism as the motor of your car. Metabolism is directly related to energy levels, so the higher your metabolism, the more energy you have throughout the day. When you are sleeping, your body naturally decreases its metabolism. When you wake up, there is an increase in metabolism, which peaks by noon. How much energy you have during this time is contingent on how much food calories your body has to use for energy. Breakfast becomes the first stop to the gas station before your road trip. So basically, eating breakfast actually helps maintain high energy levels throughout the day. In fact, the more hearty a breakfast you have, the more your metabolism motor will roar!
You do have to stick to some guidelines, of course, to promote optimal energy.
The best range of calories for breakfast is between 350 to 500. Below 350, your body will not fulfill the requirements for morning energy usage; above 500, your body may store unneeded calories as fat.
Plan and eat a balanced breakfast meal including complex carbohydrate, protein, fat, and a fruit or vegetable.
Quantity to Aim for
- 1 to 2 servings of complex carbohydrates. One serving equals 1 piece of bread, ½ cup of cooked oatmeal, 1 cup of dry cereal, 1 English muffin, ½ bagel, ¼ cup of granola, 1 small muffin.
- 1 serving of protein. For example, 1 cup of yogurt, ½ cup of cottage cheese, 1 ounce of cheese, 1 large egg, 2 ounces of smoked salmon, 1 cup of milk or soy milk, 2 tablespoons (T) of peanut butter, or ¼ cup of nuts or seeds.
- 1 serving of fat. E.g., 1 teaspoon (t) of butter, 1 t of oil, 1 tablespoon (T) of cream cheese. But check your protein and carbohydrates for fat, there's no need to add extra if you have a serving of fat in your granola or omelet.
- 1 serving of a fruit or vegetable. That is, 1 medium piece of fruit, 1 cup of cut fruit, ¼ cup dried fruit, 6 ounces of fruit juice, 1 cup of raw or ½ cup of cooked vegetables, 1 cup of vegetable juice.
Some examples of energizing breakfast meals include:
2 pieces of toast
2 T of peanut butter
1 medium banana
2 servings of complex carbohydrates
1 serving of protein
1 serving of fat
1 serving of fruit
1 serving of complex carbohydrates
1 cup of cooked oatmeal with
1 cup of 2 percent fat milk
¼ cup of raisins
2 servings of complex carbohydrates
1 serving of protein
1 serving of fat
1 serving of fruit
1 small muffin
1 cup of plain low fat yogurt
1 cup of orange juice
1 serving of complex carbohydrates
As you see, there are many delicious ways to get from point A to point B every morning. Imagine your surprise when you see the results with more energy!
A cup of warm milk is no magic sleep potion, yet it is probably the most common food associated with bedtime. Milk contains two substances that are known to be related to sleep and relaxation, the hormone melatonin and the amino acid tryptophan. The amount of melatonin in a glass of milk is minute, much less than what would be taken in a supplement. The amount of tryptophan in milk is also small. In addition, our digestive process is complex. Considering these factors, it is unlikely that a glass of warm — or cold — milk would shorten the length of time that it takes to fall asleep.
Though milk components and serving temperature are not likely to influence the onset of sleep through physiological means, warm milk might have psychological significance. The routine of consuming a glass of warm milk may elicit memories of mom, home, and comforts of childhood that help us to relax. This is part of the natural transition from wakefulness to sleep. Recommendations include practicing stress reduction techniques, sticking to a regular sleep schedule, creating a relaxing bedroom environment, and avoiding caffeine or heavy meals close to bedtime.
For some individuals, particularly those with lactose intolerance or milk allergies, a glass of milk can be followed by uncomfortable digestive consequences. Lactose reduced, soy, almond, and rice milk are options that are more likely to be tolerated. If you have no allergy or intolerance, and warm milk simply grosses you out, you could try flavoring it with a bit of honey, vanilla, or cinnamon, but there is no reason that you need to continue attempting to use it as a sleep aid. Keep drinking your cold milk, to meet your daily calcium needs, and try other sleep improvement techniques.
March 9, 2015601564
February 27, 2012507786
November 12, 200821491
I am a lover of milk and love it cold or warm. I have always had success w/ warm milk lulling me to sleep. I have even had occasions when I've had a decaf coffee drink w/ steamed...
I am a lover of milk and love it cold or warm. I have always had success w/ warm milk lulling me to sleep. I have even had occasions when I've had a decaf coffee drink w/ steamed milk and it did me in for the rest of the work day. It really has worked for me in all the years that I have been doing it. As a matter of fact, it's a cool night where I am tonight and I'm going to have a nice warm mug of milk and maybe add a little honey and vanilla, curl up in my bed, and read until I'm done partaking... yum, what a treat! Sweet dreams, ya'll...
January 10, 200721178
I have been having trouble falling asleep and do not wish to use pills. I have found that 1 measuring cup of warm milk does put me to sleep. There is very little time between the...
I have been having trouble falling asleep and do not wish to use pills. I have found that 1 measuring cup of warm milk does put me to sleep. There is very little time between the actual drinking of the warm milk and my being asleep. This is not usual for me to fall asleep so fast, so it must be the warm milk.
March 3, 200621030
Just wanted to add that in most microwaves a minute is all you need to get it hot. 3 minutes is like cooking!!
Just wanted to add that in most microwaves a minute is all you need to get it hot. 3 minutes is like cooking!!
Dear To sneeze or not to sneeze,
People in the United States spend billions of dollars a year trying to escape the misery of the common cold. Though some swear by remedies ranging from vitamin C to garlic to exercise, scientists have not conclusively found anything that will prevent, cure, or shorten the course of the common cold. The manufacturers of Airborne claim that the unique combination of herbs, amino acids, antioxidants, and electrolytes "offers vitamin and mineral support for hours," and imply that it helps the body fight bacteria and viruses by boosting the immune system. They have withdrawn their original claims that their product cures or prevents colds.
In addition to vitamins, Airborne contains Echinacea, an herbal supplement some people take on its own for colds or the flu. Similar to research on vitamin C, studies draw a mix of conclusions about whether Echinacea works in preventing or treating colds. There are many products on the market, as well as natural remedies, that successfully treat the symptoms of the cold: body aches, sore throat, stuffy nose. However, as of yet, there is no proven cure.
Some people may feel that Airborne works for them, but it's tough to say conclusively. Colds can last anywhere from one to ten days and a person's immune system will eventually fight it off, even without vitamins or supplements. There has been one study on the effectiveness of Airborne. The clinical trial was a double-blind, placebo study, meaning that neither the researchers nor the participants knew who took the real supplement and who took the placebo until after the trial ended. The study found that Airborne out-performed the placebo, however many people question the potential bias of this study because the research was conducted by the manufacturer.
Additionally, some people have expressed concern about the amount of vitamins A and C contained in Airborne. According to the Food and Drug Administration, the average adult should have 5000 units of vitamin A each day, and 60mg of vitamin C. One dose of Airborne contains 5000 units of A and 1000mg of C, and the package recommends taking a dose every three hours. That means taking significantly more than the recommended daily allowance of both. Overdosing on vitamin A may cause nausea, vomiting, headache and dizziness. Too much C can cause diarrhea and excess gas.
Subways and other enclosed spaces with many people can be germy, especially in cold season. Medical professionals say your best defense against the common cold is maintaining a healthy lifestyle. That includes: eating a balanced diet, being physically active, and getting plenty of sleep. On top of that, thorough hand washing with soap and water, especially before you eat, can keep the subway germs at bay. So, before you go out and buy the new very berry flavor of Airborne or a similar supplement, it might be wise to take its claims with a grain of salt (mix with 8 ounces of water and gargle!).
Canola oil comes from a hybrid plant developed in Canada during the late 1960s to early 1970s using traditional pedigree hybrid propagation techniques (not genetically modified) involving black mustard, leaf mustard, and turnip rapeseed. The original rapeseed plant was high in erucic acid, which is an unpalatable fatty acid having negative health effects in high concentrations. Canola oil contains less than 1 percent erucic acid. In fact, another name for canola oil is LEAR (Low Erucic Acid Rapeseed) oil.
Your confusion about canola oil's safety is understandable. While the Internet can be a great source of information, many rumors and urban legends have circulated on web sites and been passed along in e-mails. Urban legends usually warn of dire consequences from something perfectly innocent; they often relate a story about someone who had such a terrible experience with something, yet that person almost always remains anonymous. These often frightening stories or accusations usually lack enough detail to make scientific, logical evaluation of the claim. The scare tactics of canola oil fit into this scenario.
Some of the information circulating on the Internet states that canola oil causes endless maladies: joint pain, swelling, gum disease, constipation, hearing loss, heart disease, hair loss... the list goes on and on. Canola oil has undergone years of extensive testing to assure its safety. In truth, canola oil contains essential fatty acids that our bodies need and cannot make on their own. Over 90 percent of the fatty acids present is the long chain unsaturated variety that has been proven beneficial to health.
It has also been claimed that canola oil is used in making mustard gas, a poison. This is totally untrue. Actually, mustard gas doesn't even come from the mustard plant; it was so named because it smells similar to mustard. Canola oil has allegedly been used as an industrial lubricant and ingredient in fuels, soaps, paints, etc. The truth is that many vegetable oils, such as corn, soybean, and flax, are also used in these applications. That doesn't make those oils unhealthy or dangerous. Canola oil has also been accused of killing insects, such as aphids. Again, all other oils can do the same, not by poisoning insects, but by suffocating them.
In China, rapeseed oil cooked at very high temperatures was found to give off toxic emissions. In the U.S., the combination of refined oils, added antioxidants, and lower cooking temperatures prevents this from occurring. In China, the oil contains contaminants, is not refined, and has no antioxidants. Some people have blamed the Canadians for paying the United States government to have canola oil added to its GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) list. There is absolutely no evidence of this.
As you can see, misinformation can be used to scare people. Good thing you knew where to turn! For more information on canola oil, you can check out the Canola Council of Canada web site.
Wheatgrass, a relative of wheat, is grown mostly for hay or is planted for sheep, cattle, or horses to graze. The leaves are harvested within seven to ten days after sprouting. Freshly sprouted leaves can be crushed to make wheatgrass juice or dried and made into tablets or capsules, often in combination with other herbs. Though wheatgrass used as a dietary supplement is generally considered safe for consumption, headaches (as you mentioned), nausea, hives, and even swelling of the throat are all recognized as possible side effects. And, as far as the health claims, there are many associated with this green grass (more on that in a bit). However, while a few studies show promise, the majority of the claims are not backed by scientific evidence.
It is noted that wheatgrass is a concentrated source of many nutrients, including several vitamins, iron, calcium, magnesium, amino acids, and chlorophyll. Proponents of the green stuff claim that it can support immunity, kill harmful gut bacteria, and rid the body of toxins. Along those same lines, wheatgrass is also touted as a treatment for a wide range of conditions, such as anemia, diabetes, infections, constipation, ulcerative colitis, AIDS, and even cancer. But, Reader beware: many of these supposed claims are lacking scientific evidence.
What has research found? There is a small amount of evidence that supports the use of wheatgrass in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Another study found that wheatgrass may reduce myelotoxicity (damage to bone marrow) due to chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. Though some studies show promise, more research is needed.
Additionally, because wheatgrass is consumed raw, it can be contaminated with mold, bacteria, or other not-so-groovy substances. This means it’s crucial to wash it thoroughly. People who show signs of an allergic reaction (e.g., hives or a swollen throat) should seek medical attention and avoid consuming wheatgrass again. It’s also recommended that women who are pregnant or breastfeeding, folks with celiac disease, gluten intolerance, or a wheat or grass allergy steer clear of wheatgrass. Lastly, it’s good to note that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate dietary supplements, and thus, potency and safety may be difficult to determine.
If you enjoy the taste of wheatgrass, and you're headache-free, then feel free to drink up. Wheatgrass isn't, however, a substitute for eating a variety of fruits and vegetables. There are other ways to get the nutrition you need. For more information, check out the Go Ask Alice! Nutrition & Physical Activity archive.
Lactobacillus acidophilus is bacteria, not the pathogenic type that causes illness, but actually one of several kinds of beneficial bacteria called probiotics. These helpful bacteria are normally found in the intestine and the vagina. They are also naturally available in cultured or fermented dairy products, such as yogurt that contain live active cultures and acidophilus milk. Probiotics are also sold as nutritional supplements. Since the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate dietary supplements, the presence and/or amount of live active cultures in supplements is not guaranteed.
Probiotics appear to offer various health benefits. They create a more acidic environment in the intestine and vagina, which helps keep harmful bacterial growth in check. This natural balance can be disrupted, however, by antibiotic use and illness. In these cases, the bad bacteria proliferate, usually causing conditions such as diarrhea or vaginal infections. Taking probiotics may help reduce the symptoms of diarrhea and treat vaginal infections.
Other possible benefits include enhancement of the immune system, helping the digestion process, production of antimicrobial substances, and protection against certain chronic illnesses, such as cancer, among other possibilities. However, more research is needed to definitively demonstrate that probiotics have these favorable actions.
To answer your question: There has been some research to suggest that L. acidophilus (commonly combined with another probiotic) may reduce the risk and/or duration of of some cases of diarrhea if used as a preventative measure. More specifically, a few studies have shown that the use of this probiotic has reduced the risk and incidence of diarrhea associated with antibiotic use and chemotherapy. In another study, a combination of probiotics that included L. acidophilus resulted in a shorter duration of acute diarrhea in children. While these findings are promising, there is currently no consensus on whether L. acidophilus alone or in combination with other probiotics would be effective for the prevention or treatment of traveler’s diarrhea.
Despite this research, if you are considering using L. acidophilus or other probiotics, consult your health care provider before doing so. Those who are pregnant or immune-compromised will need to determine whether or not it's medically safe to take probiotics. Adverse effects include gas and/or bloating, irritation, sensitivities or allergies, and interactions with over-the-counter or prescription drugs and/or other dietary supplements.
There are other remedies for diarrhea, including antidiarrheal and antimicrobial medicines, but these are not recommended in all cases. When the cause is food poisoning, it’s best to let the illness run its course. Antidiarrheals can delay the time it takes for food-borne microorganisms to leave the body.
Hope this helps!